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Table 4 Root-mean-square vector field differences \(_{i,j}T\) in units nT between IGRF-2020 candidate models and also between candidates and the arithmetic mean reference models M, median reference model \(M_{\text{med}}\) and robust Huber-weighted model in the rightmost columns

From: Evaluation of candidate models for the 13th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field

\(_{i,j}T\)/nT B CE CM CU D G IP IS IZ N P S M \(M_{\text{med}}\) Robust
B 0.0 11.6 11.2 8.9 6.1 14.3 5.5 9.4 10.2 7.4 7.2 14.5 4.61 5.09 4.69
CE 11.6 0.0 14.7 11.9 11.2 19.5 12.7 15.7 13.9 11.0 12.5 18.1 10.56 11.14 10.60
CM 11.2 14.7 0.0 12.2 9.8 19.1 10.8 12.8 10.9 11.3 9.3 13.8 8.62 8.93 8.97
CU 8.9 11.9 12.2 0.0 6.1 19.3 7.8 12.1 8.8 9.9 6.7 16.4 7.12 6.56 6.41
D 6.1 11.2 9.8 6.1 0.0 17.1 4.8 10.0 6.4 8.5 3.6 14.0 3.69 2.48 2.95
G 14.3 19.5 19.1 19.3 17.1 0.0 16.4 17.7 20.1 15.1 18.4 19.1 14.88 15.96 15.69
IP 5.5 12.7 10.8 7.8 4.8 16.4 0.0 10.3 8.0 9.8 5.5 14.2 4.93 4.18 4.56
IS 9.4 15.7 12.8 12.1 10.0 17.7 10.3 0.0 13.2 11.4 9.7 16.2 8.93 8.93 9.03
IZ 10.2 13.9 10.9 8.8 6.4 20.1 8.0 13.2 0.0 11.7 6.2 14.8 7.69 6.66 6.98
N 7.4 11.0 11.3 9.9 8.5 15.1 9.8 11.4 11.7 0.0 9.7 14.3 6.42 7.62 6.71
P 7.2 12.5 9.3 6.7 3.6 18.4 5.5 9.7 6.2 9.7 0.0 13.8 4.74 3.39 4.00
S 14.5 18.1 13.8 16.4 14.0 19.1 14.2 16.2 14.8 14.3 13.8 0.0 12.14 12.84 12.70
Mean Diff 9.7 13.9 12.4 10.9 8.9 17.8 9.6 12.6 11.3 10.9 9.3 15.4 7.86 7.81 7.78
  1. The bottom row is the simple arithmetic mean of the columns