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Fig. 3 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 3

From: Detection of plastic strain using GNSS data of pre- and post-seismic deformation of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake

Fig. 3

Conceptual model of the time development of strain in the upper crust of inland Japan. The idea of Ikeda (1996) is shown by thin lines, while thick lines represent the revision by this study, which includes the change of strain rates before a gigantic earthquake due to the onset of plastic deformation. The solid line represents the geodetic strain that includes all components of strain. The broken line represents inelastic (geological) strain, which is composed of plastic and viscous strain. The elastic strain is released by the gigantic earthquake, while the inelastic strain monotonically accumulates with time

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