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Table 3 Summary of validation tests for the 1-monthly GVO products

From: Geomagnetic Virtual Observatories: monitoring geomagnetic secular variation with the Swarm satellites

  GVO series Ground observatory comparison Model comparison Error estimates
\(\mathrm {rms}_r\) \(\mathrm {rms}_{\theta }\) \(\mathrm {rms}_{\phi }\) \(\mathrm {rms}_F\) \(\mathrm {rms}_r\) \(\mathrm {rms}_{\theta }\) \(\mathrm {rms}_{\phi }\) \(\mathrm {rms}_F\) \(\mathrm {rms}_r\) \(\mathrm {rms}_{\theta }\) \(\mathrm {rms}_{\phi }\)
All GVO-OBS [nT] 3.00 6.98 5.25 3.91 4.16 3.59 4.00 3.83 4.17 7.18 6.92
GVO-CORE [nT] 4.12 5.17 3.55 4.37 3.84 2.83 2.16 3.67 3.42 2.78 1.85
GVO-SV [nT/yr] 3.06 4.35 3.60 3.18 1.60 1.64 1.48 1.69 1.62 1.66 1.32
Polar GVO-OBS [nT] 4.28 10.30 7.27 4.83 5.47 5.24 5.19 5.30 8.13 14.44 15.71
GVO-CORE [nT] 5.35 7.42 5.26 5.35 4.25 3.51 2.92 4.25 4.00 3.58 2.76
GVO-SV [nT/yr] 4.46 6.11 5.03 4.25 2.19 1.95 2.50 2.20 2.22 1.96 1.87
Non-polar GVO-OBS [nT] 1.90 4.11 3.51 3.12 3.70 3.01 3.59 3.31 2.78 4.63 3.83
GVO-CORE [nT] 3.05 3.23 2.08 3.52 3.69 2.59 1.89 3.46 3.22 2.50 1.53
GVO-SV [nT/yr] 1.86 2.83 2.35 2.26 1.40 1.53 1.12 1.51 1.41 1.55 1.13
Benchmark GVO-OBS [nT] 1.67 3.71 3.32 2.53 3.80 3.10 3.66 3.42 3.92 4.69 4.36
GVO-CORE [nT] 2.81 2.45 2.22 2.80 3.80 2.75 1.89 3.58 3.30 2.66 1.55
GVO-SV [nT/yr] 1.80 2.50 2.35 1.75 1.40 1.63 1.14 1.56 1.42 1.64 1.15