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Fig. 4 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 4

From: Simple empirical method for estimating lava-effusion rate using nighttime Himawari-8 1.6-µm infrared images

Fig. 4

a ALOS-2 image of central to eastern part of Nishinoshima (11:18 JST on 6 December 2019). b Simulation results with assumed effusion rate of 0.47 × 106 m3 day−1 (equivalent to lava-effusion rate at Nishinoshima on 6 December 2019 minus portion consumed by pyroclastic cone building). c Simulation results with assumed effusion rate of 0.20 × 106 m3 day−1 (corresponding to average value for 2013–2015 Nishinoshima activity)

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