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Table 2 Total mass discharged by phreatic eruptions of Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano and other volcanoes in Japan

From: Total mass estimate of the January 23, 2018, phreatic eruption of Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano, central Japan

Eruption age Volcano Mass (t) VEI Magnitude Reference
2018 Kusatsu-Shirane 2.4 × 104–3.4 × 104 1 0.4–0.5 This study
2015 Kuchinoerabujima 1.0 × 105 1 1.0 Tajima et al. (2015)
2014 Ontake 8.9 × 105–1.2 × 106 2 2.0 Takarada et al. (2016)
2008 Meakandake 1.2 × 104 1 < 0.1 Ishimaru et al. (2009)
2008 Shinmoedake 2.0 × 105 1 1.3 Geshi et al. (2010)
1982 Kusatsu-Shirane 2.8 × 103–3.4 × 103 0 < 0.1 Aramaki and Hayakawa (1983)
1976 Kusatsu-Shirane 1.1 × 104* 1 < 0.1 Shimozuru et al. (1978)
1937–39 Kusatsu-Shirane 5.0 × 106 2 2.7 Minakami et al. (1942)
1932 Kusatsu-Shirane 1.1 × 104* 1 < 0.1 Japan Meteorological Agency (2013)
1902 Kusatsu-Shirane 5.0 × 105 1 1.7 Hayakawa (1999)
1882 Kusatsu-Shirane 5.0 × 106 2 2.7 Hayakawa (1999)
  1. VEIs and magnitudes obtained using the total mass are also shown
  2. *Converted volume described in reference to mass using a tephra density of 700 kg/m3