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Table 3 Quasi-definitive observatories used for calibration model, including estimated crustal biases which are given in units of nT

From: Investigation of geomagnetic reference models based on the Iridium\(^{\circledR }\) constellation

IAGA code Name Country Colatitude (\(^{\circ }\)) East longitude (\(^{\circ }\)) Bias\(B_r\) Bias\(B_{\theta }\) Bias\(B_{\phi }\) Data start Data end
ABK Abisko Sweden 21.642 18.823 − 28.3 − 21.2 57.5 1 Jan 1998 31 Jul 2020
ASC Ascension Island United Kingdom 97.95 345.62 − 25.8 497.7 269.4 1 Jan 1998 21 Jul 2020
ASP Alice Springs Australia 113.77 133.88 − 40.6 − 53.2 − 19.2 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
BEL Belsk Poland 38.164 20.789 − 311.7 − 127.0 135.3 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
BOU Boulder United States of America 49.86 254.76 139.2 − 0.9 37.6 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
BOX Borok Russia 31.93 38.23 349.8 − 2.6 1.8 1 Jan 1998 30 Apr 2020
BRW Barrow United States of America 18.68 203.38 53.0 − 34.9 − 67.0 2 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
CKI Cocos-Keeling Islands Australia 102.1875 96.8336 169.6 259.2 − 97.2 1 Jan 2013 30 Jun 2020
CLF Chambon la Foret France 41.98 2.27 − 107.0 65.7 − 16.0 1 Jan 1998 30 Apr 2020
CMO College United States of America 25.13 212.14 11.9 − 17.4 8.5 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
CNB Canberra Australia 125.32 149.36 − 78.7 − 3.8 49.0 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
CSY Casey Station Antarctica 156.283 110.533 408.1 − 720.1 − 169.5 1 Jan 2011 31 May 2020
CTA Charters Towers Australia 110.1 146.3 − 176.1 437.6 − 83.9 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
CYG Cheongyang Republic of Korea 53.63 126.854 97.2 50.1 52.7 1 Jan 2014 14 Dec 2019
DLT Dalat Vietnam 78.06 108.48 − 137.6 56.5 − 44.8 20 Apr 2011 28 Dec 2019
DOU Dourbes Belgium 39.9 4.6 − 77.5 − 25.3 − 18.0 1 Jan 1998 31 May 2020
EBR Ebro Spain 49.043 0.333 − 4.9 1.5 5.4 1 Jan 1998 31 May 2020
ESK Eskdalemuir United Kingdom 34.68 356.8 60.1 − 20.2 − 34.6 1 Jan 1998 21 Jul 2020
FRD Fredericksburg United States of America 51.8 282.63 − 110.6 − 83.2 − 44.4 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
FRN Fresno United States of America 52.91 240.28 235.7 − 5.4 − 16.9 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
GNG Gingin Australia 121.356 115.715 − 164.8 − 0.9 − 38.5 1 Jan 2012 30 Jun 2020
GUA Guam United States of America 76.41 144.87 − 54.2 − 126.1 78.9 2 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
HAD Hartland United Kingdom 39 355.52 − 67.5 31.7 14.6 1 Jan 1998 21 Jul 2020
HER Hermanus South Africa 124.43 19.23 − 26.3 − 29.5 7.3 1 Jan 1998 31 Jul 2020
HON Honolulu United States of America 68.68 202.0 324.2 162.0 88.8 1 Jan 1998 3 Feb 2020
HRN Hornsund Norway 12.998 15.547 44.3 30.5 − 49.1 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
HYB Hyderabad India 72.6 78.6 − 468.3 − 270.5 26.8 1 Jan 2009 6 Jul 2020
JCO Jim Carrigan Observatory United States of America 19.644 211.201 49.5 13.2 − 40.9 1 Jan 2005 21 Jul 2020
KAK Kakioka Japan 53.77 140.18 98.0 − 14.3 14.4 1 Jan 1998 31 May 2020
KDU Kakadu Australia 102.69 132.47 − 20.8 − 11.3 − 33.0 1 May 1998 30 Jun 2020
KEP King Edward Point South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 144.2821 323.5071 − 86.6 26.6 − 44.2 25 Feb 2011 21 Jul 2020
KHB Khabarovsk Russia 42.39 134.69 − 606.8 281.0 − 429.3 1 Jan 2012 23 Jul 2020
KNY Kanoya Japan 58.58 130.88 39.4 − 4.4 52.4 1 Jan 1998 31 May 2020
KOU Kourou French Guiana 84.79 307.27 39.7 − 112.6 99.8 12 Jan 1998 30 Apr 2020
LER Lerwick United Kingdom 29.87 358.82 − 40.1 126.2 175.9 1 Jan 1998 21 Jul 2020
LRM Learmonth Australia 112.22 114.1 − 173.7 28.8 − 33.0 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
LYC Lycksele Sweden 25.4 18.8 212.9 − 134.6 − 34.6 1 Jan 2008 31 Jul 2020
MAW Mawson Antarctica 157.6 62.88 − 184.7 − 44.1 6.3 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
MCQ Macquarie Island Australia 144.5 158.95 − 291.4 − 278.4 − 2.6 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
MGD Magadan Russia 29.949 150.728 − 44.6 251.1 − 718.4 1 Jan 2012 12 Jul 2020
MMB Memambetsu Japan 46.09 144.19 − 47.1 207.2 144.4 1 Jan 1998 31 May 2020
NAQ Narsarsuaq Greenland 28.84 314.558 − 466.1 288.8 266.5 1 Jan 1998 31 May 2020
NEW Newport United States of America 41.73 242.88 125.2 20.5 114.9 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
NGK Niemegk Germany 37.93 12.68 78.1 12.3 − 0.8 1 Jan 1998 30 Jul 2020
NVS Novosibirsk Russia 35.15 83.23 − 18.7 − 77.6 − 55.1 1 Jan 1998 26 Jul 2020
PET Paratunka Russia 37.029 158.248 − 134.4 293.3 251.8 1 Jan 1998 25 Jul 2020
PST Port Stanley Falkland Islands 141.7 302.11 − 32.3 − 36.1 − 11.5 7 Sep 2005 21 Jul 2020
SBL Sable Island Canada 46.0679 299.9905 88.6 − 11.5 9.3 1 Jan 2000 21 Jul 2020
SFS San Fernando Spain 53.333 354.055 − 153.0 93.4 31.9 1 Jan 1998 30 Jul 2020
SHU Shumagin United States of America 34.65 199.54 − 29.5 − 415.9 − 234.4 1 Jan 2005 25 Jun 2020
SIT Sitka United States of America 32.94 224.67 85.6 − 27.2 − 16.0 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
SJG San Juan United States of America 71.89 293.85 − 127.2 51.6 131.3 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
SPT San Pablo-Toledo Spain 50.45 355.65 26.9 − 13.7 9.1 1 Jan 1998 31 May 2020
TAM Tamanrasset Algeria 67.21 5.53 59.0 − 56.5 − 218.8 1 Jan 1998 30 Apr 2020
THY Tihany Hungary 43.1 17.89 57.3 5.5 − 12.9 1 Jan 1999 31 Dec 2018
TUC Tucson United States of America 57.82 249.27 − 419.5 82.0 − 265.2 1 Jan 1998 30 Jun 2020
UPS Uppsala Sweden 30.097 17.353 119.9 − 151.9 − 14.5 1 Jan 2003 31 Jul 2020
WIC Conrad Observatory Austria 42.0695 15.8657 18.3 − 14.9 − 2.5 1 Jan 2015 24 Jul 2020
WNG Wingst Germany 36.26 9.07 73.4 − 68.0 49.0 1 Jan 1998 30 Jul 2020
  1. The last two columns provide the time period of data availability used to estimate the crustal biases