(a) Location of Taal volcano, Philippines. (b) Map showing source and station locations. Red circle represents the epicenter. Red triangles indicate real station locations, and green diamonds indicate the locations of virtual stations (at 1-km intervals from the epicenter) used in the forward waveform simulation. The dotted rectangle shows the extent of the horizontal computational domain. Contours indicate the topography of the Taal volcano and bathymetries of Taal Lake (TL) and Main Crater Lake (MCL). The contour interval is 40 m. (c) Enlargement of map (b) around the Volcano Island. The contour interval is 20 m.