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Analyzing the variation of embedding dimension of solar and geomagnetic activity indices during geomagnetic storm time


Cyclic solar activity as one of the natural chaotic phenomena has significant effects on Earth, climate, and satellites. Rapid changes in the near-Earth space environment can affect the performance and reliability of both spacecraft and ground-based systems. This can imply major problems due to communication and satellite operational anomalies. Therefore, it is meaningful to analyze solar activity and geomagnetic indices to elicit the behavior of sun as the origin of most of these chaotic phenomena. One of the most important tools for analyzing the chaotic trends is the “Embedding Dimension” (ED). In this paper, the variation of ED for solar activity indices especially during storm time for two well-known storms is considered. The first storm is the super-storm on 13 March 1989, which shuts down the power supply system in Québec, Canada and the second one is the storm caused by Coronal Mass Ejection on 11 January 1997 which causes the failure of Telstar 401 satellite. The method of this paper is based on the fact that the reconstructed dynamics of an attractor should be a smooth map, i.e. with no self intersection in the reconstructed attractor. It is shown that the Embedding Dimension (and other chaotic characteristics) of some solar and geomagnetic activity indices during these storms varies rapidly.


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Correspondence to M. Mirmomeni.

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Mirmomeni, M., Lucas, C. Analyzing the variation of embedding dimension of solar and geomagnetic activity indices during geomagnetic storm time. Earth Planet Sp 61, 237–247 (2009).

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Key words

  • Space weather
  • chaotic dynamics
  • embedding dimension
  • polynomial models
  • solar activity
  • geomagnetic activity
  • geomagnetic storms