- Open Access
The origins of electrical resistivity in magnetic reconnection: Studies by 2D and 3D macro particle simulations
Earth, Planets and Space volume 53, pages463–472(2001)
This article argues the roles of electrical resistivity in magnetic reconnection, and also presents recent 3D particle simulations of coalescing magnetized flux bundles. Anomalous resistivity of the lower-hybrid-drift (LHD) instability, and collisionless effects of electron inertia and/or off-diagonal terms of electron pressure tensor are thought to break the frozen-in state that prohibits magnetic reconnection. Studies show that, while well-known stabilization of the LHD instability in high-beta plasma condition makes anomalous resistivity less likely, the electron inertia and/or the off-diagonal electron pressure tensor terms make adequate contributions to break the frozen-in state, depending on strength of the toroidal magnetic field. Large time and space scale particle simulations show that reconnection in magnetized plasmas proceeds by means of electron inertia effect, and that electron acceleration results instead of Joule heating of the MHD picture. Ion inertia contributes positively to reconnection, but ion finite Larmor radius effect does negatively because of charge separation of ions and magnetized electrons. The collisionless processes of the 2D and 3D simulations are similar in essence, and support the mediative role of electron inertia in magnetic reconnection of magnetized plasmas.
Biskamp, D., E. Schwartz, and J. F. Drake, Ion-controlled collisionless magnetic reconnection, Phys. Rev. Lett., 75, 3850, 1995.
Cai, H. J., D. Q. Ding, and L. C. Lee, The generalized Ohm’s law in collisionless reconnection, Phys. Plasmas, 4, 509, 1997.
Davidson, R. C. and N. T. Gladd, Anomalous transport properties associated with the lower-hybrid-drift instability, Phys. Fluids, 18, 1327, 1975.
Dreher, J., U. Arendt, and K. Schindler, Particle simulation of collisionless reconnection in magnetotail configuration including electron dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 27375, 1996.
Dungey, J. W., Conditions for the occurrence of electrical discharges in astrophysical systems, Phil. Mag., 44, 725, 1953.
Hesse, M. and D. Winske, Electron dissipation in collisionless magnetic reconnection, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 26, 1998.
Hesse, M., K. Schindler, J. Birn, and M. Kuznetsova, The diffusion region in collisionless magnetic reconnection, Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1781, 1999.
Hoshino, M., The electrostatic effect for the collisionless tearing mode, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 7368, 1987.
Krall, N. A. and P. C. Liewer, Low frequency instabilities in magnetic pulses, Phys. Rev. A, 4, 2094, 1971.
Kuznetsova, M., M. Hesse, and D. Winske, Toward a transport model of collisionless magnetic reconnection, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 7601, 2000.
Parker, E. N., The solar flare phenomenon and the theory of reconnection and annihilation of magnetic fields, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 77, 177, 1963. Shinohara, I., PhD Dissertation, University of Tokyo, 1996.
Speiser, T. W., Conductivity without collisions or noise, Planet. Space Sci., 18, 613, 1970.
Sweet, A., The production of high energy particles in solar flares, Nuovo Cimento, 8, 188, 1958.
Tajima, T., F. Brunel, and J. Sakai, Loop coalescence in flares and coronal x-ray brightening, Astrophys. J., 258, L45, 1982.
Tanaka, M., Roles of plasma microinstabilities in the magnetic reconnection process, PhD Dissertation, University of Tokyo, 1981.
Tanaka, M., Macroscale implicit electromagnetic particle simulation of magnetized plasmas, J. Comput. Phys., 79, 209, 1988
Tanaka, M., A simulation of low-frequency electromagnetic phenomena in kinetic plasmas of three dimensions, J. Comput. Phys., 107, 124, 1993.
Tanaka, M., The macro-EM particle simulation method and a study of collisionless magnetic reconnection, Comput. Phys. Commun., 87, 117, 1995a.
Tanaka, M., Macro-particle simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection, Phys. Plasmas, 2, 2920, 1995b.
Tanaka, M., Asymmetry and thermal effects due to parallel motion of electrons in collisionless magnetic reconnection, Phys. Plasmas, 3, 4010, 1996.
Tanaka, M., Magnetic Reconnection in Space and Laboratory Plasmas, Focused Talk, The University of Tokyo Symposium, February 28–March 4, 2000.
Tanaka, M. and T. Sato, Simulations of lower hybrid drift instability and anomalous resistivity in the magnetic neutral sheet, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 5552, 1981.
Vu, H. X. and J. U. Brackbill, CELEST1D: an implicit, fully kinetic model for low-frequency electromagnetic plasma simulation, Comput. Phys. Commun., 69, 253, 1992.
Wesson, J. A., Sawtooth reconnection, Nucl. Fusion, 30, 2545, 1990.
Winske, D., Current-driven microinstabilities in a neutral sheet, Phys. Fluids, 24, 1069, 1981.
About this article
Cite this article
Tanaka, M. The origins of electrical resistivity in magnetic reconnection: Studies by 2D and 3D macro particle simulations. Earth Planet Sp 53, 463–472 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03353257
- Magnetic Reconnection
- Current Layer
- Particle Simulation
- Reconnection Rate
- Anomalous Resistivity