Skip to content

Advertisement

  • Editorial
  • Open Access

Special issue ‘Geofluid processes in subduction zones and mantle dynamics’

  • Tatsuhiko Kawamoto1Email author,
  • Junichi Nakajima2,
  • Bruno Reynard3, 4 and
  • Hiroaki Toh5
Earth, Planets and Space201567:46

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-015-0209-z

Received: 25 February 2015

Accepted: 25 February 2015

Published: 1 April 2015

Keywords

Mantle WedgeTohoku EarthquakeSeismic AnisotropyVolcanic FrontForearc Region

Introduction

Almost all physico-chemical characteristics of earth-forming materials are influenced by the presence of H2O. As N. L. Bowen stated in 1928, H2O plays the role of Maxwell’s demon - it does just what a petrologist may wish it to do [p. 282, The evolution of the igneous rocks (Bowen 1928)]. In the following decades, this has been proven to be the case not only in petrology but in every field of solid Earth science.

H2O is the most abundant fluid in the Earth, except for liquid iron alloys present in the outer core. Volcanoes emit magmas and volatiles, which include COH ± S ± N species, halogens (F, Cl, I, Br), rare gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), fluid-mobile elements such as alkali elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs), B, possibly Pb and U, and less likely Th. In the Earth’s interior, these volatile components exist as geofluids, affecting various phenomena and acting as effective tracers for the respective phenomena. Seawater and atmosphere are geofluids that have accumulated on the surface of the Earth, and they hydrate and carbonate lithosphere through chemical reactions and depositions. Geofluids are released from subducting lithospheres, migrate upward, and play vital roles in various subduction-zone phenomena, such as magma genesis (Kawamoto et al. 2012; Kimura and Nakajima 2014), seismic activity (Mitsui and Hirahara 2009; Shiina et al. 2013), rock deformation (Katayama et al. 2004; Hilairet et al. 2007), and electromagnetic response (Yoshino and Katsura 2013). Geofluids also affect mantle dynamics (Korenaga 2013; Reynard 2013), including global material circulation and chemical differentiation (Tatsumi 2005), and the transportation of mainly C-O-H fluids into the Earth’s interior (Deschamps et al. 2013). This special issue is a collection of 30 studies on such geofluid processes.

Fluids in the mantle wedge and crust originating from the subducting slab

Kusuda et al. (2014) report on the chemical composition of non-volcanic hot springs in the forearc region of the Southwest Japan arc. The forearc hot springs have been studied by means of aqueous chemistry for over 40 years (Kazahaya et al. 2014). By comparing the analyzed chemical composition of hot water with modeled composition of dehydrated materials from downgoing oceanic crustal materials, the authors conclude that the water originates in the subducting oceanic plate (Matsumoto et al. 2003; Kawamoto et al. 2013; Kazahaya et al. 2014). Within the same forearc region in the Kii peninsula, Japan, Kato et al. (2014) report on an intensive non-volcanic seismic swarm and estimate a fine-scale seismic velocity structure of the region. The results indicate the presence of geofluids such as partial melt or water beneath the swarm. Such fluids may potentially be released from the subducting crust of the Philippine Sea plate.

In the near-trench area in the Northeast Japan arc, Togo et al. (2014) report on the isotopes of hydrogen/deuterium, oxygen, iodine, and chlorine, as well as tritium concentrations of deep groundwater. They propose that these are derived from subducting sediments. Okamoto et al. (2014) describe CH4-CO2-H2O fluid inclusions in quartz veins from the Shimanto belt, a near-trench Tertiary accretionary prism in the Southwest Japan arc. Such fluids may represent fluids degassed from crystallizing near-trench magmas generated during subduction of hot oceanic lithosphere.

Mori et al. (2014) evaluate bleaching processes of pelite in serpentine mélanges by studying the chemical composition of a bleached and unaltered sedimentary rock at the reaction boundary between the surrounding chlorite schist and metapelite. Regarding reactions that take place inside subducting slabs, Zheng and Hermann (2014) summarize major and trace element features of slab-derived fluids based on an analysis of high-pressure and ultra-high-pressure metamorphic rocks. Koga et al. (2014) demonstrate that vibrational spectroscopy can be used to determine halogen content in Ti-clinohumite, a high-pressure hydrated phase formed from fluids produced by dehydration reactions in ultramafic rocks.

Within the deeper subducting slab, geofluids released from the slab trigger the melting of the mantle wedge. Ikemoto and Iwamori (2014) model trace element transport in volcanic rocks and show that disequilibrium transport through channels likely plays an important role in element cycling in subduction zones. Such fluid transport without further chemical changes is also seen in the hot springs in the forearc region that originated from subducting slabs (Kusuda et al. 2014).

Hydrous melting of the mantle produces hydrous magmas, leaving behind residual mantle minerals that have distinct compositions compared to those formed through anhydrous melting. Matsukage and Kawasaki (2014) compare the chemical composition of cratonic garnet peridotites and experimental peridotite residue under various H2O contents from 100- to 200-km depth. The results suggest heterogeneity of H2O content in the upper mantle during the early history of the Earth and raise the question of how much H2O is present in current arc magmas. Hamada et al. (2014) describe differentiation processes of low-K tholeiite basaltic magma having H2O content of 3 wt.% in a shallow magma chamber at approximately 4-km depth and propose possible differentiation processes of the magma at deeper crustal levels. Based on Ca/Na partitioning between plagioclase and melt, Ushioda et al. (2014) estimate the H2O content in erupted basaltic magmas in the Northeast Japan and Izu arcs. According to their results, the frontal volcanoes appear to have higher H2O content than the rear-arc volcanoes.

Rose-Koga et al. (2014) report on the abundance of H2O, CO2, F, Cl, and S and Pb isotopes in basaltic melt inclusions in a frontal-arc volcano in the Northeast Japan arc and discuss temperatures of slab surface and phase relationships of the dehydrating slab materials. Kawamoto et al. (2014) conducted synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) experiments to determine the effects of salinity and pressure on partitioning of large-ion lithophile elements such as Pb, Rb, and Sr between silicate melts and aqueous fluids. They propose a process of separation of Cl-bearing supercritical fluids from the slab and their subsequent incorporation into hydrous melts and saline fluids to explain the geochemical features of island arc basalts (Kawamoto et al. 2012).

The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: friction, strength, and post-seismic deformation

Den Hartog et al. (2014) evaluate an experimental physical model of phyllosilicate-rich fault gouges in the megathrust. The results imply that water-assisted thermally activated quartz deformation is one of the major controlling factors of seismogenic properties in such megathrusts. Shimizu (2014) proposes a rheological profile across the source area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and argues that the large tsunamigenic slip during the Tohoku earthquake can be explained by a large gradient in fault strength on the up-dip side of the hypocenter. Based on a long-term multiscale earthquake cycle simulation on a three-dimensional (3D) plate boundary model, Ariyoshi et al. (2014) suggest that activation and quiescence of shallow, very low-frequency earthquakes following the 2011 Tohoku earthquake are closely associated with plate coupling perturbations resulting from the stress shadow effect of the Tohoku earthquake. By modeling the effect of poroelastic rebound on surface deformation following the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, Hu et al. (2014) show how the effect is restricted to the vicinity of the rupture area. They also show that the viscosity in the lower crust beneath the volcanic front is several orders of magnitude lower than the surrounding areas.

Geofluids detected with magnetotelluric and seismic observations

Kanda and Ogawa (2014) estimate a 3D distribution of fluids and melts under the Northeast Japan arc using geomagnetic transfer functions. Their results suggest the presence of a deep crustal conductor that may correspond either to partial melts and/or high-salinity fluids. Ichihara et al. (2014) present a 3D electrical resistivity model beneath the focal zone of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake that shows a shallow conductive zone beneath the Kitakami Lowland and several conductive patches beneath active volcanic areas. Yoshida et al. (2014) determined pore fluid pressure distribution in the focal region of the above earthquake and suggest that geofluids supplied from the mantle wedge have contributed to the generation of high pore pressures and to the lowering of frictional strengths of seismic faults in this region. Ogawa et al. (2014) conducted a densely distributed magnetotelluric survey around the Naruko Volcano in Northeast Japan and produced a shallow resistivity model of the Quaternary volcano. They found a southward-dipping, sub-vertical conductor that may imply the presence of geofluids just below the volcano. Okada et al. (2014) found seismic low-velocity zones beneath the same volcano and in the aftershock region of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, both of which can be attributed to the presence of geofluids. The former, having a diameter of 10 to 20 km, resides in the lower crust. Kosuga (2014) observed the migration of seismicity for a seismic cluster near the Moriyoshi volcano in the Northeast Japan arc and identifies distinct seismic scatters above low-frequency earthquakes in the lower crust. He argues that the observed migration is associated with geofluids supplied from the uppermost mantle.

Shiina et al. (2014) show that hydrated mineralogy alone cannot sufficiently explain the low velocities observed in the subducting crust beneath Hokkaido, suggesting that fluids may coexist with hydrated rocks down to 80-km depth. Nakajima (2014) provides evidence of the presence of high-attenuation areas in a serpentinized mantle wedge using seismological tomography. These areas are associated with low seismic activity that may be explained by deformation of weak serpentine. Based on numerical simulation, Kirby et al. (2014) suggest that the serpentinized mantle was formed through plate subduction during the Mesozoic and Paleogene that has been sufficiently heated over time, releasing water into the crust over much of the history of the San Andreas Fault system. Kuwatani et al. (2014) apply the Markov random field model to the observed seismic velocity models in the mantle wedge of the Northeast Japan arc and estimate the porosity and pore shapes of rocks. There is a significant difference in the calculated porosity and aspect ratio of geofluids between the forearc side and the volcanic front.

A frontier letter by Pommier (2014) describes how electromagnetic and seismic methods can complement each other in providing information about the storage of fluids in subduction systems. She implies a possible correlation between electrical conductivity and seismic wave attenuation anomalies in the mantle wedge. Jung et al. (2014) studied seismic anisotropy of two fluid-induced peridotite samples collected from wall rock and mylonite fabrics and find that seismic anisotropy becomes significantly weaker as the percentage of mylonite increases. Ishikawa and Matsumoto (2014) measure Vp for quartz aggregate at PT conditions of the middle crust and quantify the effect of pore fluids on Vp. The results show that even a small amount of fluids (0.4 to 1.0 wt.%) reduces Vp by 3% to 4%. Shimojuku et al. (2014) report on the experimental results of conductivity measurement of saline-fluid-bearing rocks. Their set of data will be highly instrumental in distinguishing between magmas and saline fluids and also in determining their possible volumes and geometry based on comparison with the observed conductivity data in subduction zones.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

We are deeply grateful to the many referees who have given their time and provided us with valuable suggestions. This special issue on geofluids was initially conceived by core members including Drs. Toru Matsuzawa, Yasuo Ogawa, Tetsu Kogiso, Michihiko Nakamura, and Hikaru Iwamori during the 2009 to 2014 Geofluids project lead by Dr. Eiichi Takahashi. We appreciate their efforts. We would also like to express our thanks to our colleagues who submitted their cutting-edge work to this special issue.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Institute for Geothermal Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Beppu, Japan
(2)
Research Center for Prediction of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
(3)
Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon, France
(4)
Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France
(5)
Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

References

  1. Ariyoshi K, Matsuzawa T, Hino R, Hasegawa A, Hori T, Nakata R, Kaneda Y (2014) A trial derivation of seismic plate coupling by focusing on the activity of shallow slow earthquakes. Earth Planets Space 66(1):55View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowen NL (1928) The evolution of the igneous rocks. Dover Publications, Mineola, NY, USA, p 332Google Scholar
  3. den Hartog S, Saffer D, Spiers C (2014) The roles of quartz and water in controlling unstable slip in phyllosilicate-rich megathrust fault gouges. Earth Planets Space 66(1):78View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Deschamps F, Godard M, Guillot S, Hattori K (2013) Geochemistry of subduction zone serpentinites: a review. Lithos 178:96–127View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Hamada M, Okayama Y, Kaneko T, Yasuda A, Fujii T (2014) Polybaric crystallization differentiation of H2O-saturated island arc low-K tholeiite magmas: a case study of the Izu-Oshima volcano in the Izu arc. Earth Planets Space 66(1):15View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Hilairet N, Reynard B, Wang Y, Daniel I, Merkel S, Nishiyama N, Petitgirard S (2007) High-pressure creep of serpentine, interseismic deformation, and initiation of subduction. Science 318(5858):1910–1913View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Hu Y, Burgmann R, Freymueller J, Banerjee P, Wang K (2014) Contributions of poroelastic rebound and a weak volcanic arc to the postseismic deformation of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Earth Planets Space 66(1):106View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Ichihara H, Sakanaka S, Mishina M, Uyeshima M, Nishitani T, Ogawa Y, Yamaya Y, Mogi T, Amita K, Miura T (2014) A 3-D electrical resistivity model beneath the focal zone of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (M 7.2). Earth Planets Space 66(1):50View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Ikemoto A, Iwamori H (2014) Numerical modeling of trace element transportation in subduction zones: implications for geofluid processes. Earth Planets Space 66(1):26View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Ishikawa M, Matsumoto Y (2014) Effect of fluid H2O on compressional wave velocities in quartz aggregate up to 500°C at 0.5 GPa. Earth Planets Space 66(1):35View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Jung S, Jung H, Austrheim H (2014) Characterization of olivine fabrics and mylonite in the presence of fluid and implications for seismic anisotropy and shear localization. Earth Planets Space 66(1):46View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Kanda W, Ogawa Y (2014) Three-dimensional electromagnetic imaging of fluids and melts beneath the NE Japan arc revisited by using geomagnetic transfer function data. Earth Planets Space 66(1):39View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Katayama I, Jung H, S-i K (2004) New type of olivine fabric from deformation experiments at modest water content and low stress. Geology 32(12):1045–1048View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Kato A, Saiga A, Takeda T, Iwasaki T, Matsuzawa T (2014) Non-volcanic seismic swarm and fluid transportation driven by subduction of the Philippine Sea slab beneath the Kii Peninsula, Japan. Earth Planets Space 66(1):86View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Kawamoto T, Kanzaki M, Mibe K, Matsukage KN, Ono S (2012) Separation of supercritical slab-fluids to form aqueous fluid and melt components in subduction zone magmatism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(46):18695–18700View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Kawamoto T, Yoshikawa M, Kumagai Y, Mirabueno MHT, Okuno M, Kobayashi T (2013) Mantle wedge infiltrated with saline fluids from dehydration and decarbonation of subducting slab. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:9663–9668View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Kawamoto T, Mibe K, Bureau H, Reguer S, Mocuta C, Kubsky S, Thiaudiere D, Ono S, Kogiso T (2014) Large-ion lithophile elements delivered by saline fluids to the sub-arc mantle. Earth Planets Space 66(1):61View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Kazahaya K, Takahashi M, Yasuhara M, Nishio Y, Inamura A, Morikawa N, Sato T, Takahashi H, Kitaoka K, Ohsawa S, Oyama Y, Ohwada M, Tsukamoto H, Horiguchi K, Tosaki Y, Kirita T (2014) Spatial distribution and feature of slab-related deep-seated fluid in SW Japan. J Jpn Ass Hydrolog Sci 44:3–16 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  19. Kimura J-I, Nakajima J (2014) Behaviour of subducted water and its role in magma genesis in the NE Japan arc: a combined geophysical and geochemical approach. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 143:165–188View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Kirby S, Wang K, Brocher T (2014) A large mantle water source for the northern San Andreas fault system: a ghost of subduction past. Earth Planets Space 66(1):67View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Koga K, Garrido C, Padron-Navarta J, Sanchez-Vizcaino V, Gomez-Pugnaire M (2014) FTIR and Raman spectroscopy characterization of fluorine-bearing titanian clinohumite in antigorite serpentinite and chlorite harzburgite. Earth Planets Space 66(1):60View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Korenaga J (2013) Initiation and evolution of plate tectonics on Earth: theories and observations. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 41(1):117–151View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Kosuga M (2014) Seismic activity near the Moriyoshi-zan volcano in Akita Prefecture, northeastern Japan: implications for geofluid migration and a midcrustal geofluid reservoir. Earth Planets Space 66(1):77View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Kusuda C, Iwamori H, Nakamura H, Kazahaya K, Morikawa N (2014) Arima hot spring waters as a deep-seated brine from subducting slab. Earth Planets Space 66(1):119View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuwatani T, Nagata K, Okada M, Toriumi M (2014) Markov random field modeling for mapping geofluid distributions from seismic velocity structures. Earth Planets Space 66(1):5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  26. Matsukage K, Kawasaki T (2014) Hydrous origin of the continental cratonic mantle. Earth Planets Space 66(1):29View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Matsumoto T, Kawabata T, Matsuda J-I, Yamamoto K, Mimura K (2003) 3He/4He ratios in well gases in the Kinki district, SW Japan: surface appearance of slab-derived fluids in a non-volcanic area in Kii Peninsula. Earth PlanetSci Lett 216:221–230View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Mitsui Y, Hirahara K (2009) Coseismic thermal pressurization can notably prolong earthquake recurrence intervals on weak rate and state friction faults: numerical experiments using different constitutive equations. J Geophy Res 114(B9):B09304Google Scholar
  29. Mori Y, Shigeno M, Nishiyama T (2014) Fluid-metapelite interaction in an ultramafic melange: implications for mass transfer along the slab-mantle interface in subduction zones. Earth Planets Space 66(1):47View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  30. Nakajima J (2014) Seismic attenuation beneath Kanto, Japan: evidence for high attenuation in the serpentinized subducting mantle. Earth Planets Space 66(1):12View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Ogawa Y, Ichiki M, Kanda W, Mishina M, Asamori K (2014) Three-dimensional magnetotelluric imaging of crustal fluids and seismicity around Naruko volcano, NE Japan. Earth Planets Space 66(1):158View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Okada T, Matsuzawa T, Nakajima J, Uchida N, Yamamoto M, Hori S, Kono T, Nakayama T, Hirahara S, Hasegawa A (2014) Seismic velocity structure in and around the Naruko volcano, NE Japan, and its implications for volcanic and seismic activities. Earth Planets Space 66(1):114View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  33. Okamoto A, Musya M, Hashimoto Y, Tsuchiya N (2014) Distribution of CO2 fluids in the Shimanto belt on Muroto Peninsula, SW Japan: possible injection of magmatic CO2 into the accretionary prism. Earth Planets Space 66(1):33View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  34. Pommier A (2014) Geophysical assessment of migration and storage conditions of fluids in subduction zones. Earth Planets Space 66(1):38View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  35. Reynard B (2013) Serpentine in active subduction zones. Lithos 178:171–185View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  36. Rose-Koga E, Koga K, Hamada M, Helouis T, Whitehouse M, Shimizu N (2014) Volatile (F and Cl) concentrations in Iwate olivine-hosted melt inclusions indicating low-temperature subduction. Earth Planets Space 66(1):81View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  37. Shiina T, Nakajima J, Matsuzawa T (2013) Seismic evidence for high pore pressures in the oceanic crust: implications for fluid-related embrittlement. Geophys Res Lett 40(10):2006–2010View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  38. Shiina T, Nakajima J, Toyokuni G, Matsuzawa T (2014) Guided wave observations and evidence for the low-velocity subducting crust beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan. Earth Planets Space 66(1):69View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  39. Shimizu I (2014) Rheological profile across the NE Japan interplate megathrust in the source region of the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake. Earth Planets Space 66(1):73View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  40. Shimojuku A, Yoshino T, Yamazaki D (2014) Electrical conductivity of brine-bearing quartzite at 1GPa: implications for fluid content and salinity of the crust. Earth Planets Space 66(1):2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  41. Tatsumi Y (2005) The subduction factory: how it operates in the evolving Earth. GSA Today 15:4–10View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  42. Togo Y, Kazahaya K, Tosaki Y, Morikawa N, Matsuzaki H, Takahashi M, Sato T (2014) Groundwater, possibly originated from subducted sediments, in Joban and Hamadori areas, southern Tohoku, Japan. Earth Planets Space 66(1):131View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  43. Ushioda M, Takahashi E, Hamada M, Suzuki T (2014) Water content in arc basaltic magma in the Northeast Japan and Izu arcs: an estimate from Ca/Na partitioning between plagioclase and melt. Earth Planets Space 66(1):127View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  44. Yoshida K, Hasegawa A, Okada T, Takahashi H, Kosuga M, Iwasaki T, Yamanaka Y, Katao H, Iio Y, Kubo A, Matsushima T, Miyamachi H, Asano Y (2014) Pore pressure distribution in the focal region of the 2008 M7.2 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake. Earth Planets Space 66(1):59View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  45. Yoshino T, Katsura T (2013) Electrical conductivity of mantle minerals: role of water in conductivity anomalies. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 41(1):605–628View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  46. Zheng Y-F, Hermann J (2014) Geochemistry of continental subduction-zone fluids. Earth Planets Space 66(1):93View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Kawamoto et al.; licensee Springer. 2015

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

Advertisement