Effects of solar cycle variations on oxygen green line emission rate over Kiso, Japan
© The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences; TERRAPUB. 2011
Received: 4 October 2010
Accepted: 19 April 2011
Published: 29 December 2011
A sixteen year long dataset of mesospheric OI 557.7 nm green line nightglow emission rate, measured over Kiso (35.79°N, 137.63°E), Japan using ground-based photometers is spectrally investigated using the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT). The spectrograms reveal the presence of semi-annual, annual and quasi-biennial oscillations in consonance with the results obtained from wavelet analysis in an earlier study. In addition, due to the use of the HHT, we have been able to investigate the very low frequency solar cycle variation in the emission rate. It is found that there is a significant solar cycle effect on the oxygen green line emission rate. The mean amplitude of variation is approximately 20% and it is also found that it is maximum at midnight. A correlation study between the means of the emission rate and the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm also shows that the effect of solar activity on the oxygen green line emission rate is maximum at midnight.
Oxygen green line airglow (OI 557.7 nm) emission rate is a unique parameter to understand the neutral dynamics of the 90–100 km region as the bulk of the emission comes from the mesopause and the lower thermosphere. There is also a contribution from the thermosphere over the equatorial and the equatorial ionization anomaly regions but not for mid-latitudes (Shepherd et al., 1997; Nicolls et al., 2006). The thermospheric contribution over the equator can exceed the mesospheric component during the post midnight hours of high solar activity period (Rajesh et al., 2007).
Atomic oxygen is produced during the day by the photodissociation of molecular oxygen by absorption of solar radiation in the Schumann Runge continuum (135–175 nm) and the Schumann Runge bands (175–242 nm).
The green line airglow emanating from this atmospheric species has always been of immense interest and is still investigated to understand the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere (MLT) region.
There have been many ground-based and satellite-based studies in the past that addressed the short-and long-term variations of the oxygen green line emission (Brenton and Silverman, 1970; Donahue et al., 1973; Fukuyama, 1976, 1977; Cogger et al., 1981; Shepherd et al., 1995, 2005; Yee et al., 1997; Deutsch and Hernandez, 2003; Reid and Woithe, 2007; Das and Sinha, 2008; Liu and Shepherd, 2008; Liu et al., 2008a, b).
The diurnal variations observed were due to the tidal variations in the MLT region (Brenton and Silverman, 1970; Fukuyama, 1976; Shepherd et al., 1995, 1998; Liu et al., 2008a). Model results by Ward (1999) reinforced the role of tidal dynamics in the diurnal variation of the oxygen green line airglow. Fukuyama (1977) examined the seasonal and other long-term variations using ground-based measurements from a number of stations in the northern hemisphere. The most significant variation was the annual component with smaller amplitudes at low latitudes and larger amplitudes at higher latitudes. The next important oscillation was the semi-annual component, showing the opposite trend. It had maximum amplitude over the equator which decreased with increasing latitude. Deutsch and Hernandez (2003) also showed the same results with data from 29 stations covering both the northern and southern hemispheres. Liu and Shepherd (2008) studied the tropical O(1S) nightglow variations using data from the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) instrument onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and ground-based photometers installed at Arecibo Observatory (18°N, 67°W) and found that both datasets exhibited semi-annual variation with maxima at the two equinoxes and minima at the solstices. Liu et al. (2008a) investigated the seasonal variations in the O(1S) and OH nightglow emission rates at mid-to-high latitudes using WINDII/UARS data and showed that both emissions showed semi-annual and annual variations at specific altitudes and local times. Vertical advection associated with tides and the large-scale circulation was found to play a major role in these airglow seasonal variations.
Deutsch and Hernandez (2003) have investigated in very great detail the oxygen green line observations from Kiso (35.79°N, 137.63°E), Japan available from 1979–1990. Periodogram analysis done in this work showed statistically significant annual and semi-annual components, with the annual component beginning as a not so significant component but at the end of twelve years, it appeared as the most significant feature of the spectrum. Later Das and Sinha (2008) showed by wavelet analysis using the same Kiso dataset, which was slightly longer (1979–1994), that the annual component was indeed weaker in the initial years from 1979–1982 and that during this period the semi-annual oscillation had dominated. In the former study, what had been observed was a cumulative effect of observed periodicities during the periods 1979–1982, 1979–1985, 1979–1988, 1979–1990 using the one-dimensional periodograms that led to the inferences. In the latter study, the use of the continuous wavelet transform had enabled the visualization of the time-frequency localisation and how the annual and semi-annual components varied through time was understood. The quasi-biennial oscillation also was identified using the wavelet analysis (Das and Sinha, 2008) and was not seen in the earlier study (Deutsch and Hernandez, 2003). Shiokawa and Kiyama (2000) also investigated the Kiso data (1979–1994) and found the presence of two seasonal peaks, one in June and the other in October, however, no detailed spectral analysis was performed. Reid and Woithe (2007) used a 11 year long database of oxygen green line nightglow observations over Buckland Park (34.9°S, 138.6°E), near Adelaide, Australia, a geographically conjugate station to Kiso, and found that the annual and semiannual components were almost equal in amplitude and varied between 14–17% of the mean intensity. They also found a quasi-biennial component, with a smaller amplitude of 5% of the mean intensity.
The other important result obtained by Das and Sinha (2008) was that the semi-annual oscillation was very significant at 2000 hrs JST (Japan Standard Time) and as the night progressed, the amplitude of the oscillation reduced. This observation was possible because the nightglow observations at each hour had been considered separately, instead of using the nightly means as done in earlier studies. This result is in absolute conformity with the observations of WINDII/UARS and also the TIME-GCM (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics-Global Circulation Model) model calculations of the oxygen green nightglow (Shepherd et al., 2005). The annual and the quasi-biennial oscillations, on the other hand, weakened towards midnight, and their amplitudes increased during the post-midnight hours. This local time dependence of the amplitudes of the long term periods is due to the effect of tides on the oxygen emission rates.
In addition to these long term periods, the oxygen emission rate is also influenced by the 11-year solar cycle (Deutsch and Hernandez, 2003; Liu et al., 2008b; Liu and Shepherd, 2008). Deutsch and Hernandez (2003) observed that the emission rate increases with solar activity being higher during the decreasing phase of the solar activity, but this relationship varies slightly with different solar cycles. Liu et al. (2008b) also showed that the WINDII and the Arecibo datasets were consistent with the solar flux variation. Liu and Shepherd (2008) investigated the solar cycle impact on the green line emission rate specifically, and found that the latter was related linearly to the solar F10.7cm flux, which is a good proxy for solar UV irradiance. The study of effect of solar cycle variation on the upper atmosphere at almost all times faces the problem of lack of sufficient length of data. Deutsch and Hernandez (2003) have shown in their study of the long term (annual and semiannual) variations of the oxygen green line nightglow that to establish a statistically significant climatology of a periodicity, the data length should be at least 20 times the same. It is highly impossible to obtain such a long data series to study the solar cycle variations. Also, measurements would not be possible with the same instrument and/or human operator and thereby introduce errors, which require proper inter-calibrations and corrections. The Kiso nightglow data, is a valuable dataset presenting 16 year long observations of the oxygen green line nightglow emission rate from 1979, a solar maximum year, through 1989, the next solar maximum year, to 1994. The solar minima were during 1986 and 1996. The present study is a re-investigation of the Kiso data using the Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT)—a better spectral analysis tool in terms of extracting the low frequency components (Huang et al., 1998; Huang and Wu, 2008)—to address the solar cycle variations and effects on the oxygen nightglow. Section 2 describes the Kiso data and Section 3 describes HHT in detail. The results from the analysis are discussed in Section 4.
3. Hilbert-Huang Transform
Spectral analysis tools are very important in understanding the periodic variations of different parameters in observational sciences. The most popular until now is the Fourier transform, which is useful for spectral analysis of linear and stationary data. However, seldom are geophysical datasets linear and stationary. The wavelet transform provided an advancement as it is capable of analyzing non-stationary data and gives time-frequency localization (Farge, 1992; Torrence and Compo, 1998). It is still inadequate as it cannot handle non-linear data and also its non-local adaptive approach results in leakage giving the spectrum an overly smoothed appearance. To address these problems, the Hilbert-Huang Transform, HHT, (Huang et al., 1998; Huang and Wu, 2008) has been proposed, which is capable of dealing with non-stationary as well as non-linear data series and is described below. HHT consists of two main elements—(1) Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) of the source data into an adaptive basis called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) and (2) Hilbert spectral analysis of the IMFs to generate a time-frequency-energy representation. It is the first local and adaptive method in frequency-time analysis.
Thus, the data is decomposed into n-empirical modes and a residue. The equation above shows the ‘completeness’ of the decomposition.
It is very interesting to note that this is a generalized form of the Fourier transform. We can then represent the amplitude and instantaneous frequency, which are functions of time, in a three dimensional plot, in which the amplitude is contoured in a time-frequency plane. It is called the Hilbert spectrum, H(ω, t). The strength of this method lies in the fact that the basis of the decomposition is derived and defined a posteriori from the data and most importantly, the data is used most efficiently in this process. All data is used to define the longest period component. Furthermore, we do not need a whole wave to define the local frequency, for the Hilbert transform gives the best fit local sine or cosine form to the local data (Eq.(5)) and the frequency resolution at any point is uniformly defined by the local derivative of the phase (Eq. (8)). This is especially effective in extracting the low-frequency oscillations.
It is an analogy for the Fourier spectrum and the global power spectrum of wavelet analysis.
4. Results and Discussion
It is known that the atomic oxygen, from which the green line emission takes place, is produced from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen during the day in the 100–140 km region, and is a function of the solar energy inputs. Hence, when this atomic oxygen is carried down to mesopause levels during the night by tides, it carries with it the imprint of the solar cycle effect. We thus observe the local time dependence in the solar cycle effect on the oxygen green line emission rate. This investigation once again establishes the important effects of tides and the large-scale circulation in the MLT region on the long term variations of the atomic oxygen and the green line emission rates, starting from seasonal variations to solar cycle variations.
5. Summary and Conclusions
We have analyzed 16 year long data of the oxygen green line emission rate over Kiso, Japan using the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT). The importance of this method lies in its efficiency to extract low frequency components by computing the instantaneous frequency. The approach of this method is local and adaptive as the basis set for the decomposition is derived from the data itself. By using this method, we have been able to identify the solar cycle variations in the emission rates and also the local time dependence of the solar cycle effects on the emission rates. We find that there is a significant effect of the solar cycle on the green line emission rate. The mean amplitude of variation is ∼20% and is maximum at midnight. A correlation study between the means of the emission rates and the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm also shows that the effect of solar activity is maximum at and around midnight.
In addition to the investigation of the oxygen green line emission rates, this study also shows that HHT is a powerful spectral analysis tool which presents the time-frequency-energy spectrum of the data with very high temporal and spectral resolutions. It addresses and solves many problems faced with the traditional Fourier analysis and the currently well established and highly preferred wavelet transform. This method is very useful in investigating geophysical data that is most of the time non-local and non-stationary.
Authors thank the World Data Center C2 for Airglow (http://solarwww.mtk.nao.ac.jp/wdc.html) for providing free access to the airglow data. UD and CJP are supported by the NSC of Taiwan through grant NSC 99-2111-M-008-006-MY2.
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