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Generation and propagation of static displacement estimated using KiK-net recordings
© The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences; TERRAPUB. 2011
Received: 7 April 2011
Accepted: 1 May 2011
Published: 27 September 2011
Using KiK-net strong-motion data recorded at eleven stations during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake), we investigate the generation and propagation of static displacements, i.e. coseismic permanent near-field displacements. The static displacements are calculated by double numerical integration after removing acceleration steps from the acceleration signals. The estimated static displacements are totally in agreement with the land deformation measured by GEONET, the GPS network established by the Geographical Survey Institute, despite the fact that our estimation method is extremely simple. It is hoped that scientific studies of this disastrous earthquake will one day lead to a real-time evaluation system for static displacement using strong-motion data. This would be expected to greatly improve the effectiveness of tsunami alert systems, since tsunamis are caused by sea-floor movements during earthquakes.
This short article reports a preliminary evaluation of displacement signals estimated using borehole data provided by the KiK-net (Okada et al., 2004) of the NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention) for the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Given the magnitude of this event (Mw = 9.0), the strong-motion records may be quite different from previous records. The generation and propagation of static displacement are evaluated based on near-field recordings.
GEONET, the Global Positioning System (GPS) established by the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI), recorded land deformation up to approximately 5 meters at the Pacific coast of eastern Honshu; in addition, an east-southeast deformation of 5.3 meters and a downward deformation of 1.2 meters were measured at the Ojika GPS site. Such co-seismic permanent displacement, i.e. near-field static displacement, and its spatial distribution, can lead to a tilt step in near-field acceleration signals as shown by Pillet and Virieux (2007). Furthermore, local tilt motions due to soil deformation may be induced by strong shaking (Kinoshita, 2008). The simplest method of modeling such tilt motion in the acceleration signals is based on a step increase in acceleration approximated by a Heaviside step function (Zahradnik and Plesinger, 2005; Pillet and Virieux, 2007). This model produces a linearly increasing velocity signal by numerically integrating the acceleration signal. An acceleration step with a finite rise time, of course, causes a tradeoff between the tilt and static displacement signals (Kinoshita et al., 2009). Thus, we evaluated the static displacement by removing the influence of a Heaviside-type acceleration step.
The estimated displacement signals at eleven KiK-net stations indicate the generation of static displacements, which is totally in agreement with the land deformation measured by GEONET and published on the Internet (http://www.gsi.go.jp/).
2. Data and Method
Station data used in this study and mean static displacements estimated. Acceleration signals recorded at borehole bottoms at each site are used, with the exception of the IBRH20 site, for which surface signals are used.
Depth of borehole (m)
Static Disp. Eest (cm)
Static Disp. North (cm)
Static Disp. Up (cm)
4. Concluding Remarks
As pointed out by Pillet and Virieux (2007), determining the gradient of the velocity signal cannot always be carried out accurately since a data length of 3 min is sometimes too short for a reliable estimation of the gradient, and the maximum pre-event time of 15 s for KiK-net acceleration data may be insufficient for baseline estimation. In the present study, we used a common pre-event time of only 5 s to determine the baseline. However, the estimated static displacements closely match the GPS measurements just after the earthquake. This suggests that the strong-motion data obtained for this earthquake are probably more widely applicable than previous strong-motion records. For example, obtaining the static displacement from strong-motion data before the arrival of a tsunami would improve the reliability of tsunami alert systems, since tsunamis are caused by sea-floor movements during earthquakes. In addition, a knowledge of the downward static displacement may allow the length of the inundation period after the tsunami to be predicted. The possibility of mitigating tsunami disasters provides strong motivation to develop a real-time system for estimating static displacement.
The authors are grateful to Dr. Yusaku Ohta and an anonymous reviewer for carefully reviewing the manuscript. We thank Dr. Toshihiko Hayakawa for his help in preparing our manuscript. We would also like to thank the NIED for providing the KiK-net strong-motion data.
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