Three sub-events composing the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) inferred from rupture imaging by back-projecting teleseismic P waves
© The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences; TERRAPUB. 2011
Received: 4 April 2011
Accepted: 11 June 2011
Published: 27 September 2011
High-quality vertical component seismograms of teleseismic P waves recorded at 151 stations of the European seismic network have been used to image the rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake rapidly by a two-step back-projection method. The spatio-temporal distribution of rupture fronts suggests that the earthquake ruptured northeastwards and southwestwards over a total length of more than 340 km during at least 143 s. The fact that three fault segments ruptured at regions having different lateral heterogeneities implies that the earthquake comprised three sub-events. The first sub-event ruptured northeastwards during the first 25 s, and then turned to the northwest direction. The second sub-event ruptured at a relatively high speed of 2.78~4.70 km/s. The third sub-event ruptured with a direction variation from southwest to southeast near the latitude of 37°. In addition, considering that the first front of the second sub-event appeared at 74.6 s and was about 28 km away from the epicenter, we propose that the second sub-event might have been triggered by the localized increase in tectonic stress in the vicinity of the hypocenter that resulted from the rupture of the first sub-event.
On March 11, 2011, the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake struck off the northeast coast of Honshu, Japan (UTC 05:46:23, hypocenter 38.322°N, 142.369°E, 32 km depth (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc0001xgp/)). The disastrous earthquake and the accompanying powerful tsunami led to tens of thousands of deaths and many missing. This disaster emphasizes the importance of rapidly and accurately imaging the rupture process for post-earthquake emergency response and tsunami warnings.
In recent years, the back-projection method has been used as an effective approach to image the spatio-temporal rupture process (Ishii et al., 2005; Krüger and Ohrnberger, 2005; Walker et al., 2005). The only prior parameter used in this method is the location of the hypocenter, which was determined in almost real-time by the USGS. Meanwhile, the calculations of the back-projection method are so straightforward that it takes no more than half an hour to effectively image the rupture process. To image the two-dimensional spatial rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, we apply here a two-step back-projection method (Zhang and Ge, 2010) to process the broadband teleseismic P waves that were recorded by 151 seismic stations of the European seismic network, referred to as “the Euro network”.
Teleseismic P waves over a period of time of 220 s were used to isolate the P wave from other phases, such as PP. To save calculation time, only vertical component seismo-grams were considered; i.e. only the reference (ZAG) and 24 other traces shown in Fig. 1(b). Considering the coherence and resolution of the data, seismograms with a sample rate of 20 Hz were high-pass filtered with a cut-off frequency of 0.2 Hz, at which the array response function (Rost and Thomas, 2002; Xu et al., 2009) was calculated to illuminate the array geometry and azimuth on the spatial resolution (Fig. 1(c)).
This study employed the two-step back-projection method described by Zhang and Ge (2010). In the first step, P waves were back-projected to find locations of the rupture fronts at the apparent rupture times. Then, rupture times of the fronts were derived from their own locations and apparent rupture times.
To identify the rupture fronts of the 2011 To-hoku Earthquake, the source region (34.32~42.32°N, 139.87~144.87°E) was spatially gridded into blocks of 0.1° × 0.1°. This process resulted in 4131 grid points referring to potential rupture fronts. Due to the small dip of the fault plane (14°, given by USGS), the potential rupture fronts were fixed at a depth (Ishii et al., 2007) of 32 km, the hypocenter depth given by USGS. The theoretical travel time was calculated in 1-D Earth velocity model AK135 (Kennett et al., 1995) for each pair of potential rupture front and station. However, due to lateral heterogeneities along ray paths, there is always a small difference between theoretical and real travel times (Fig. 1(b)). Therefore, the theoretical travel times from the stations to the hypocenter were calibrated by aligning the initial 30 s of the teleseismic P waves through cross-correlation. These time calibrations of the hypocenter were applied to other potential fronts (Xu et al., 2009).
4. Results and Analyses
The rupture evolution of an earthquake can be affected by the fault-zone properties (Di Stefano et al., 2011). In this study, most of the rupture features observed from the back-projection imaging (Fig. 2(a)) can also be associated with the lateral heterogeneities of the P- and S-wave velocity and Poisson’s ratio (PR) structures which have been well investigated by tomographic imaging (Zhao et al., 1992, 2007) on the slab boundary. There are two kinds of wave velocity and PR anomalies in the rupture zone. One is characterized by high P and S velocity and low PR anomaly, which implies a more rigid medium. The other has a low P and S velocity and high PR anomaly, which implies a more ductile medium. The hypocenter occurred in a region at a latitude of 38.32°, which is near the boundaries of high and low velocity and PR. The rupture extended northeastwards after the initiating earthquake. An energy peak was radiated when the rupture went through the boundary of velocity and PR anomalies into a more ductile region near 85.5° at 23 s. Due to the northwest-elongated anomalies distribution of the region, the rupture of the northern branch turned to the northwest direction. Next, the earthquake ruptured south-westwards. The second energy peak was released when the rupture went through a boundary of velocity and PR anomalies into a rigid region near the latitude of 38.0° at 77.0 s. Since the region of 37.0°~38.0° is more rigid, the rupture extended at a high rate across this region. Then the rupture arrived at an anomaly boundary near the latitude of 37.0° at 110 s, when the energy peak of the third stage was radiated. Since the rupture zone of the third stage with a latitude below 37° has a southeast elongation of low P and S wave and high PR anomalies, the rupture direction turned to the southeast direction at a low rupture velocity. Therefore, due to the lateral heterogeneities of the P and S velocity and PR on the slab boundary of the northeast Japan arc, the rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake consisted of three sub-events having different rupture velocities and energy-radiation peaks.
Not long after the earthquake, many source inversions of other types of data, such as tsunami, and broadband tele-seismic data, were carried out to investigate the slip of the earthquake (Lay et al., 2011a, b). However, the areas of the large slip in these source models are quite different from most of the back-projection results (Koper et al., 2011). We think the main reason for the apparent inconsistency is that the main frequency of data used by back-projection is much higher than other types of data adopted by source inversions. The rupture features of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake derived from back-projection have come from small-scale rupture structures. In contrast, the slip models from inversions are optimal solutions of the entire rupture process, in which small-scale features are smoothed. In addition, the characteristic frequency of the radiated signal varies during the rupture for a large earthquake (Kiser and Ishii, 2011). Thus, source models inverted from different types of data with different frequency bandwidths reflect the rupture features of different stages and scales of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake.
In this paper, a two-step back-projection method, an array technique based on a non-plane-wave assumption, was applied to image the rupture process of the 2011 Mw 9.0 To-hoku Earthquake. The rupture imaging resulting from this study shows that the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake has a total rupture length of over 340 km and duration of at least 143 s, and ruptures to the northeast first and then to the southwest. Three energy radiation peaks occurred at 23 s, 77 s, and 110 s, which correspond to 14 km northeast, 28 km southwest, and 191 km southwest of the epicenter, respectively. According to analyses of the lateral heterogeneities of P-and S-wave velocities in the rupture zone, the 2011 To-hoku Earthquake consists of three sub-events. The first one ruptured northeastwards and then northwards over ~90 km during the first 74 s at a speed of 0.92~1.10 km/s. Then the second one ruptured southwestwards from 74 s to 100 s with a length of over 150 km at a relatively high speed of 2.78~4.70 km/s, and might have been triggered by the increasing tectonic stress focused in the vicinity of the hypocenter as a result of the rupture of the first sub-event. The third one ruptured about 110 km southeastwards at an average speed of 1.51~1.62 km/s until the rupture ended at 143 s.
Some interesting rupture details of our model are presented here. The first sub-event ruptured around the epicenter during the first 25 s after the initiating earthquake. The second sub-event ruptured at a relatively high velocity on the megathrust fault. A sudden rupture-velocity variation appeared between the second and third sub-events on the southwest branch near the latitude of 37°. Most of the rupture details are closely related to lateral heterogeneities of the P and S velocity and PR structures on the slab boundary of the northeast Japan arc. Although some details need further confirmation, we can say that the rupture imaging infers that the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake comprised three sub-events (the first one on the northeast, and the last two on the southwest).
We thank Dr. J. Y. Ning, Z. K. Shen, and Mr. K. Tao for their advice, and two anonymous referees for the constructive reviews of this manuscript. We also thank P. Wessel and Walter H. F. Smith (1991) for their GMT software, and ORFEUS for the data downloaded from the website of ORFEUS. This paper is supported by the national sciences foundation of China (grant Nos. 41074029, 40821160552 and 40821062). This work was done when one of the authors (Z. Ge) is visiting the University of California, Santa Cruz. The support for this visit from China Scholarship Council and UCSC are appreciated.
- Di Stefano, R., C. Chiarabba, L. Chiaraluce, M. Cocco, P. De Gori, D. Piccinini, and L. Valoroso, Fault zone properties affecting the rupture evolution of the 2009 (Mw 6.1) L’Aquila earthquake (central Italy): Insights from seismic tomography, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2011GL047365, 2011.Google Scholar
- Ishii, M., P. M. Shearer, H. Houston, and J. E. Vidale, Extent, duration and speed of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake imaged by the Hi-Net array, Nature, 435, 933–936, 2005.Google Scholar
- Ishii, M., P. M. Shearer, H. Houston, and J. E. Vidale, Teleseismic P wave imaging of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 28 March 2005 sumatra earthquake ruptures using the hi-net array, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B11307, doi:10.1029/2006JB004700, 2007.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kennett, B. L. N., E. R. Engdahl, and R. Buland, Constraints on seismic velocities in the earth from travel times, Geophys. J. Int., 122, 108–124, 1995.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kiser, E. and M. Ishii, The 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake: Triggering on multiple segments and frequency-dependent rupture behavior, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2011GL047140, 2011.Google Scholar
- Koper, K. D., A. R. Hutko, T. Lay, C. J. Ammon, and H. Kanamori, Frequency-dependent rupture process of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake: Comparison of short-period P wave backprojection images and broadband seismic rupture models, Earth Planets Space, 63, this issue, 599–602, 2011.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Krüger, F. and M. Ohrnberger, Tracing the rupture of the Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake over 1,150 km at teleseismic distance, Nature, 435, 937– 939, 2005.Google Scholar
- Lay, T., C. J. Ammon, H. Kanamori, L. Xue, and M. J. Kim, Possible large near-trench slip during the 2011 Mw 9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, Earth Planets Space, 63, this issue, 687–692, 2011a.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lay, T, Y. Yamazaki, C. J. Ammon, K. F Cheung, and H. Kanamori, The 2011 Mw 9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake: Comparison of deep-water tsunami signals with finite-fault rupture model predictions, Earth Planets Space, 63, this issue, 797–801, 2011b.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rost, S. and C. Thomas, Array seismology: Methods and applications, Rev. Geophys., 40(3), 1008, doi:10.1029/2000RG000100, 2002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Walker, K. T, M. Ishii, and P. M. Shearer, Rupture details of the 28 March 2005 Sumatra M w 8.6 earthquake imaged with teleseismic P waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24303, doi:10.1029/2005GL024395, 2005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wessel, P. and W. Smith, Free software helps map and display data, Eos. Trans. AGU, 72, 441, 1991.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu, Y, K. D. Koper, O. Sufri, L. Zhu, and A. R. Hutko, Rupture imaging of the Mw 7.9 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from back projection of teleseismic P waves, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 10(4), 1–17, doi:10.1029/2008GC002335, 2009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang, H. and Z. X. Ge, Tracking the rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake by using the relative back-projection method, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 100(5B), 2551–5560, doi:10.1785/0120090243, 2010.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao, D., A. Hasegawa, and S. Horiuchi, Tomographic imaging of P and S wave velocity structure beneath northeastern Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 19,909–19,928, 1992.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao, D., Z. Wang, N. Umino, and A. Hasegawa, Tomographic imaging outside a seismic network: Application to the northeast Japan arc, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 97, 1121–1132, 2007.View ArticleGoogle Scholar