X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopic study of Hayabusa category 3 carbonaceous particles
© Yabuta et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 30 April 2014
Accepted: 12 November 2014
Published: 3 December 2014
Analyses with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy were applied for the molecular characterization of two kinds of carbonaceous particles of unknown origin, termed category 3, which were collected from the Hayabusa spacecraft sample catcher. Carbon-XANES spectra of the category 3 particles displayed typical spectral patterns of heterogeneous organic macromolecules; peaks corresponding to aromatic/olefinic carbon, heterocyclic nitrogen and/or nitrile, and carboxyl carbon were all detected. Nitrogen-XANES spectra of the particles showed the presence of N-functional groups such as imine, nitrile, aromatic nitrogen, amide, pyrrole, and amine. An oxygen-XANES spectrum of one of the particles showed a ketone group. Differences in carbon- and nitrogen-XANES spectra of the category 3 particles before and after transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations were observed, which demonstrates that the carbonaceous materials are electron beam sensitive. Calcium-XANES spectroscopy and elemental contrast mapping identified a calcium carbonate grain from one of the category 3 particles. No fluorine-containing molecular species were detected in fluorine-XANES spectra of the particles. The organic macromolecular features of the category 3 particles were distinct from commercial and/or biological ‘fresh (non-degraded)’ polymers, but the category 3 molecular features could possibly reflect degradation of contaminant polymer materials or polymer materials used on the Hayabusa spacecraft. However, an extraterrestrial origin for these materials cannot currently be ruled out.
A preliminary examination of asteroid Itokawa particles collected by the Hayabusa spacecraft has successfully unveiled the mineralogical, petrographic, chemical, and isotopic relationships between an S-type asteroid and ordinary LL chondrites and provided the first direct evidence that meteorites originate from asteroids (Ebihara et al. ; Nakamura et al. ; Noguchi et al. ; Tsuchiyama et al. ; Yurimoto et al. ). The noble gas isotopic compositions (Nagao et al. ) and the asteroid particle sizes and shapes (Tsuchiyama et al. ) have also recorded asteroid surface processes such as irradiation and meteoroid impacts, which are not observed in meteorites. Organic analyses of several Itokawa particles have been carried out using micro-Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (2D-HPLC) (Kitajima et al. ; Naraoka et al. ). However, to date, indigenous organic compounds have not been identified from the samples, and the presence or absence of organic compounds on the asteroid Itokawa is not clear.
In addition to the asteroid particles investigated in the preliminary examination that have been classified as ‘categories 1 and 2’ at the Planetary Material Sample Curation Facility of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (PMSCF/JAXA), 58 carbonaceous particles of unknown origin have been collected from the Hayabusa spacecraft sample catcher and classified as ‘category 3’ (Uesugi et al. ; Yada et al. ). In the study reported here, two category 3 particles were analyzed by a synchrotron-based scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The STXM enables the quantification of chemical compositions of the submicron-sized samples as well as elemental/molecular mapping with high spatial resolution (<30 nm) (Kilcoyne et al. ). This analytical technique was originally developed for polymer materials science (e.g.; Ade et al. ; Urquhart et al. ), but it has been applied to a broad range of research areas. In cosmochemistry, STXM has been applied for organic chemical analyses of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) (Flynn et al. , ; Busemann et al. ), particles from Comet Wild 2 (Sanford et al. ; Cody et al. [2008a]; De Gregorio et al. ), acid-insoluble organic solids from chondritic meteorites (Cody et al. [2008b], Cody et al. ), and an Antarctic ultracarbonaceous micrometeorite (Yabuta et al. ). Thus, an abundant database of XANES spectra for both terrestrial and extraterrestrial organic compounds is available for the chemical characterization of unknown carbonaceous samples. We present C-, N-, O-, F-, and Ca-XANES data for two category 3 particles in order to identify their molecular compositions and determine whether the materials are terrestrial or extraterrestrial in origin.
The details of category 3 sample assignments are summarized by Uesugi et al. (). In this study, two carbonaceous particles of the category 3 samples, RA-QD02-0120 (hereafter simply ‘RA’) and RB-QD04-0047-02 (hereafter simply ‘RB’), were investigated. The samples were also analyzed by a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) (Yada et al. ), micro-Raman and micro-FTIR spectroscopy (Kitajima et al. ), NanoSIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) (Ito et al. ), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations (Uesugi et al. ). The RB sample was also analyzed by ToF-SIMS (Naraoka et al. ). Ultra-thin sections of RA and RB with 100-nm thickness were extracted by a focused ion beam (FIB, Hitachi FB2200, PMSCF/JAXA, Chiyoda-ku, Japan) for STXM and TEM analyses (Uesugi et al. ). Two different sections of RA, one section before TEM (hereafter RA-beforeTEM) and another section after TEM (hereafter RA- afterTEM), were analyzed with a STXM to evaluate electron beam damage to the sample.
The XANES spectra of FIB sections of RA-beforeTEM, RA-afterTEM, and RB were acquired using a STXM at beamline (BL) 184.108.40.206 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA. The bending magnet beamline covers the energy range from 250 to 800 eV with a photon flux of 107 photon/s (Kilcoyne et al. ). Energy calibration was conducted by measuring the known spectral Rydberg line features in gaseous CO2 and N2 at their respective K-edges prior to the sample measurements. The absorption spectra (optical density, OD) were obtained as OD = −ln(I/I0), where I is the x-ray intensity transmitted from the sample, and I0 is the recorded without samples. The works of Leinweber et al. () and Cody et al. ([2008a]) were used for absorption peak assignments.
Results and discussion
Nitrogen-, oxygen-, and fluorine-XANES
Approach to identify category 3 carbonaceous particles
Typical organic macromolecular features
The two samples of category 3 carbonaceous particles, RA and RB, displayed similar C-XANES spectra with regards to three coordination peaks. Their spectral patterns of aromatic/olefinic carbon, aromatic ketone, and carboxyl carbon are typical of those observed from terrestrial coal (Cody et al. ; Bassim et al. ) and kerogen (Bernard et al. ) and even extraterrestrial organic solids from chondritic meteorites and IDPs (e.g., Flynn et al. ; Cody et al. ). This does not necessarily imply that our category 3 particles are coal or chondritic organics, but the findings do suggest the presence of some form of heterogeneous macromolecule formed through chemical processing in a natural environment. It is unlikely that the category 3 particles are derived from the LL 5 to 6 chondrite-like asteroid, since the C-XANES spectra show a lack of 1 s-σ* excitons at 291.6 eV corresponding to a highly conjugated sp2 carbon, which are generally characterized from thermally metamorphosed type 3+ chondrites (Cody et al. [2008b]).
In contrast, the spectral pattern was distinct from those of the synthesized polymers (e.g., Ade et al. ; Urquhart et al. ) and biological polymers (e.g., Hitchcock et al. ), which are composed of specific molecular moieties. However, it is quite possible that the degradation of synthesized and biological polymers could convert their well-organized functional group structures into more heterogeneous macromolecules. Some of the synthetic polymer materials that were used on the Hayabusa spacecraft structures could potentially have been altered through chemical and physical processes (e.g., heat, cosmic ray irradiation) during the 7 years of Hayabusa's flight in deep space. If that is the case, the difference in the spectral intensities between RA (R1, R2) and RB might reflect different amounts of degradation of the same original source material. If this is the case, then the spectrum of RA-R1 may show the best vestiges of the original source material, since a sharp and high peak of aromatic carbon is a typical feature of various polymers (e.g., Ade et al. ; Urquhart et al. ).
Organic nitrogen macromolecules
Typically, acid-insoluble organic solids from chondritic meteorites have less characteristic N-XANES spectra (Cody et al. [2008a]) than those of the category 3 particles we examined here, despite the roughly similar C-XANES spectral patterns between the two materials. Rather, C- and N-XANES spectral patterns of the category 3 particles are somewhat similar to those seen in some of the organic materials found in Comet Wild 2 particles, in particular, organic nanoglobules (De Gregorio et al. ). However, most of the organic nanoglobules from extraterrestrial materials have isotopic anomalies in the form of deuterium and 15 N enrichments (Nakamura-Messenger et al. ; De Gregorio et al. ), which represents a significant difference from our category 3 particles because they do not display isotopic anomalies (Ito et al. ).
The N-XANES spectral features of the category 3 particles enable the elimination of some materials used on the Hayabusa spacecraft. It is unlikely that the two category 3 particles are derived from Vectran and fluoro resin, which were used in the sampler horn of the Hayabusa spacecraft and in the clean chambers at the curation facility, respectively (Uesugi et al. ); this is because these polymers do not contain nitrogen. The lack of fluoropolymers is also supported by the absence of F-K-edge x-ray absorption at 650 to 700 eV and characteristic peaks of the σ*(C-F) resonance (Nagayama et al. ) in the C-XANES spectra.
In an ongoing investigation of the contamination coupons from the Hayabusa 2 spacecraft assembly clean room (unpublished data), nitrogen was detected by SEM-EDS and TEM analyses. However, the C-XANES spectra of the contamination coupons were distinct from those of the category 3 particles investigated in this study. This means that N-containing contamination seems certain, but there may be multiple sources for its presence in the category 3 particles. Investigation of a variety of the N-containing polymers used in and around the spacecraft, such as polyimide, will provide additional information needed for the future evaluation of spacecraft-related contamination.
Electron beam-sensitive material
Different C-XANES spectral patterns of RA-beforeTEM and RA-afterTEM suggest that this category 3 particle has an electron beam-sensitive composition. De Gregorio et al. () compared the C-XANES spectra of an organic nanoglobule from a Comet Wild 2 dust particle before and after TEM, and demonstrated that the original composition based on nitrile and carboxyl groups was converted to polyaromatic structures with a loss of carboxyls. The C-XANES spectrum of RA-afterTEM is quite similar to the ‘post TEM’ spectrum of the Comet Wild 2 organic nanoglobule. Such radiation-driven alterations may not be limited solely to extraterrestrial organic nanoglobules but might also occur for other polymer materials with similar molecular compositions. It was previously noted that the original composition of the organic nanoglobule is identical to cyanoacrylate (De Gregorio et al. ).
Similarly to TEM electron beam damage, ion beam damage from the FIB extraction of the samples is possible, although such damage is expected to be much smaller (Bassim et al. ). Nevertheless, identical FIB conditions were applied for all the samples in this study, so it is unlikely that spectral differences between the samples could be attributed to the FIB procedure alone.
Terrestrial or extraterrestrial?
At this stage, it is premature to determine whether the category 3 carbonaceous particles we have examined are terrestrial or extraterrestrial. However, the general features of the particles are distinct from typical chondritic or IDP materials, in that they do not show any clear evidence of an extraterrestrial origin (e.g., isotopic anomalies and mineral compositions or textures). For instance, hydrogen isotopic compositions (δD) of insoluble organic matter from ordinary chondrites, which are meteorite groups similar to S-type asteroids, are approximately 2,000 to 5,000‰ (Alexander et al. ). In contrast, the absence of high δD values from any particles of category 3 has lowered the likelihood of asteroidal origin (Ito et al. ). Nonetheless, considering that a number of isotopically normal organics have been reported in IDPs and micrometeorites (e.g., Messenger ; Yabuta et al. ), the extraterrestrial origin cannot be ruled out.
Clear differences in C-XANES spectra between a variety of polymers and the category 3 particles imply that the particles are not associated with fresh/unused synthesized materials or living organisms. However, there is a possibility that some type of nitrogen polymer material used in and around the spacecraft could have been degraded to form the materials seen in these particles. Degradation experiments of possible polymers, as well as the analysis of contamination coupons, will be necessary to further test this possibility. Although the origin of the calcium carbonate grain from RA-afterTEM is unknown, it will be important to check every possible source such as the carbonate filler that may have been used for polymer adhesives or the carbonate-based electrical double layer capacitors used in the Micro/Nano Experimental Robot Vehicle for Asteroid (MINERVA) that rode on the spacecraft.
The two carbonaceous particles have molecular features of aromatic/olefinic carbon, heterocyclic nitrogen and/or nitrile, and carboxyl carbon. The coordination of the carbon functional groups is consistent with a chemically heterogeneous organic macromolecule but distinct from industrial or biological ‘fresh’ polymers.
Various nitrogen functional groups including imine, nitrile, aromatic nitrogen, amide, amine, and pyrrole were identified from one of the particles, as well as ketone groups. In this regard, Vectran and fluoro-rubber contaminants, which do not contain organic nitrogen, can be eliminated as the source of these category 3 particles.
The C-XANES spectra of the category 3 particles before and after TEM analysis were different, which demonstrates that the carbonaceous materials have electron beam-sensitive molecular structures.
No fluorine-containing molecular species were detected in the particles. This result indicates that ‘fresh’ fluoro-polymers can be excluded as the possible sources of these two category 3 samples.
Calcium-XANES spectrum and mapping has identified a calcium carbonate grain from one of the category 3 particles.
Although the origin of these two category 3 particles cannot be established at this time, it will be important to continue the chemical characterization of additional category 3 particles as well as model relevant material series and appropriate controls, including witness coupons. The knowledge obtained from these studies will help with the interpretation of samples obtained by Hayabusa 2, the next JAXA sample return mission. Hayabusa 2 is based on the Hayabusa configuration and aims to collect and characterize organic materials from the carbonaceous asteroid (162173) 1999 JU3.
We appreciate Daniel Glavin, an anonymous reviewer, and official editor Michael Zolensky for their constructive comments, attentive corrections, and helpful editorial assistance. The STXM at the beam line 220.127.116.11 ALS facility is supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
- Ade H, Zhang X, Cameron S, Costello C, Kirz J, Williams S: Chemical contrast in x-ray microscopy and spatially resolved XANES spectroscopy of organic solids. Science 1992, 258: 972–975. 10.1126/science.1439809View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alexander CMO'D, Fogel M, Yabuta H, Cody GD: The origin and evolution of chondrites recorded in the elemental and isotopic compositions of their macromolecular organic matter. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 2007, 71: 4380–4403. 10.1016/j.gca.2007.06.052View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bassim ND, De Gregorio BT, Kilcoyne ALD, Scott K, Chou T, Wirick S, Cody GD, Stround RM: Minimizing damage during FIB sample preparation of soft materials. J Microscopy 2012, 245: 288–301. 10.1111/j.1365-2818.2011.03570.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Benzerara K, Yoon TH, Tyliszczak T, Constantz B, Spormann AM, Brown GE Jr: Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy study of microbial calcification. Geobiology 2004, 2: 249–259. 10.1111/j.1472-4677.2004.00039.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bernard S, Horsfield B, Schulz HM, Wirth R, Schreiber A, Sherwood N: Geochemical evolution of organic-rich shales with increasing maturity: a STXM and TEM study of the Posidonia shale (Lower Toarcian, northern Germany). Mar Petrol Geol 2012, 31: 70–89. 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2011.05.010View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Busemann H, Nguyen AN, Cody GD, Hoppe P, Kilcoyne ALD, Stroud RM, Zega TJ, Nittler LR: Ultra-primitive interplanetary dust particles from the comet 26P/Grigg–Skjellerup dust stream collection. Earth Planet Sci Lett 2009, 288: 44–57. 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.09.007View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cody GD, Ade H, Wirick S, Mitchell GD, Davis A: Determination of chemical-structural changes in vitrinite accompanying luminescence alteration using C-NEXAFS analysis. Org Geochem 1998, 28: 441–455. 10.1016/S0146-6380(98)00010-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cody GD, Ade H, Alexander CMO'D, Araki T, Butterworth A, Fleckenstein H, Flynn G, Gilles MK, Jacobsen C, Kilcoyne ALD, Messenger K, Sandford SA, Tyliszczak T, Westphal AJ, Wirick S, Yabuta H: Quantitative organic and light-element analysis of comet 81P⁄Wild 2 particles using C-, N-, and O- XANES. Meteor Planet Sci 2008, 43: 353–365. 10.1111/j.1945-5100.2008.tb00627.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cody GD, Alexander CMO'D, Yabuta H, Kilcoyne ALD, Araki T, Ade H, Dera P, Fogel M, Militzer B, Mysen BO: Organic thermometry for chondritic parent bodies. Earth Planet Sci Lett 2008, 272: 446–455. 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.05.008View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cody GD, Heying E, Alexander CMO'D, Nittler LR, Kilcoyne ALD, Sandford SA, Stroud RM: Establishing a molecular relationship between chondritic and cometary organic solids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011, 108: 19171–19176. 10.1073/pnas.1015913108View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- De Gregorio BT, Stroud RM, Nittler LR, Alexander CMO'D, Kilcoyne ALD, Zega TJ: Isotopic anomalies in organic nanoglobules from comet 81P/wild 2: comparison to Murchison nanoglobules and isotopic anomalies induced in terrestrial organics by electron irradiation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 2010, 74: 4454–4470. 10.1016/j.gca.2010.05.010View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ebihara M, Sekimoto S, Shirai N, Hamajima Y, Yamamoto M, Kumagai K, Oura Y, Ireland TR, Kitajima F, Nagao K, Nakamura T, Naraoka H, Noguchi T, Okazaki R, Tsuchiyama A, Uesugi M, Yurimoto H, Zolensky ME, Abe M, Fujimura A, Mukai T, Yada T: Neutron activation analysis of a particle returned from asteroid Itokawa. Science 2011, 333: 1119–1121. 10.1126/science.1207865View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Flynn GJ, Keller LP, Feser M, Wirick S, Jacobsen C: The origin of organic matter in the solar system: evidence from the interplanetary dust particles. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 2003, 67: 4791–4806. 10.1016/j.gca.2003.09.001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Flynn GJ, Wirick S, Keller LP: Organic grain coatings in primitive interplanetary dust particles: implications for grain sticking in the solar nebula. Earth Planets Space 2013, 65: 1159–1166. 10.5047/eps.2013.05.007View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hanhan S, Smith AM, Obst M, Hitchcock AP: Optimization of analysis of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy at the Ca 2p edge. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 2009, 173: 44–49. 10.1016/j.elspec.2009.04.010View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hitchcock AP, Morin C, Zhang X, Araki T, Dynes J, Stover H, Brash J, Lawrence JR, Leppard GG: Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy of biological and synthetic polymer systems. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 2005, 144: 259–269. 10.1016/j.elspec.2005.01.279View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ito M, Uesugi M, Naraoka H, Yabuta H, Kitajima F, Mita H, Takano Y, Karouji Y, Yada T, Ishibashi Y, Okada T, Abe M: H, C, and N isotopic compositions of Hayabusa category 3 organic samples. Earth Planet Space 2014, 66: 91. 10.1186/1880-5981-66-91View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kilcoyne ALD, Tyliszczak T, Steele WF, Fakra S, Hitchcock P, Franck K, Anderson E, Harteneck B, Rightor EG, Mitchell GE, Hitchcock AP, Yang L, Warick T, Ade H: Interferometer controlled scanning transmission microscopes at the Advanced Light Source. J Synchrotron Rad 2003, 10: 125–136. 10.1107/S0909049502017739View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kitajima F, Kotsugi M, Ohkochi T, Naraoka H, Ishibashi Y, Abe M, Fujimura A, Okazaki R, Yada T, Nakamura T, Noguchi T, Nagao K, Tsuchiyama A, Mukai T, Sandford SA, Okada T, Shirai K, Ueno M, Yoshikawa M, Kawaguchi J: A Micro-Spectroscopic Approach to the Carbonaceous Matter in the Particles Recovered by the Hayabusa Mission, (Abstract #1855), 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 2011.Google Scholar
- Kitajima F, Kotsugi M, Ohkochi T, Naraoka H, Ishibashi Y, Uesugi M, Karouji Y, Abe M, Fujimura A, Yada T, Okazaki R, Nakamura T, Noguchi T, Nagao K, Tsuchiyama A, Yurimoto H, Ebihara M, Ito M, Yabuta H, Mita H, Takano Y, Mukai T, Sandford SA, Okada T, Shirai K, Ueno M, Yoshikawa M, Kawaguchi J (2014) A micro-Raman and infrared spectrosopic approach to the several stony and organic (category 3) particles recovered by the Hayabusa mission. Earth Planet Space in pressGoogle Scholar
- Leinweber P, Kruse J, Walley FL, Gillespie A, Eckhardt K-U, Blyth RIR, Regier T: Nitrogen K-edge XANES—an overview of reference compounds used to identify ‘unknown’ organic nitrogen in environmental samples. J Synchrotron Rad 2007, 14: 500–511. 10.1107/S0909049507042513View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Messenger S: Identification of molecular-cloud material in interplanetary dust particles. Nature 2000, 404: 968–971. 10.1038/35010053View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nagao K, Okazaki R, Nakamura T, Miura YN, Osawa T, Bajo K, Matsuda S, Ebihara M, Ireland TR, Kitajima F, Naraoka H, Noguchi T, Tsuchiyama A, Yurimoto H, Zolensky ME, Uesugi M, Shirai K, Abe M, Yada T, Ishibashi Y, Fujimura A, Mukai T, Ueno M, Okada T, Yoshikawa M, Kawaguchi J: Irradiation history of Itokawa regolith material deduced from noble gases in the Hayabusa samples. Science 2011, 333: 1128–1131. 10.1126/science.1207785View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nagayama K, Mitsumoto R, Araki T, Ouchi Y, Seki K: Polarized XANES studies on the mechanical rubbing effect of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and its model compound. Physica B 1995, 208&209: 419–420. 10.1016/0921-4526(94)00716-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakamura T, Noguchi T, Tanaka M, Zolensky ME, Kimura M, Tsuchiyama A, Nakato A, Ogami T, Ishida H, Uesugi M, Yada T, Shirai S, Fujimura A, Okazaki R, Sandford SA, Ishibashi Y, Abe M, Okada T, Ueno M, Mukai T, Yoshikawa M, Kawaguchi J: Itokawa dust particles: a direct link between S-type asteroids and ordinary chondrites. Science 2011, 333: 1113–1116. 10.1126/science.1207758View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakamura-Messenger K, Messenger S, Keller LP, Clemett SJ, Zolensky ME: Organic globules in the Tagish lake meteorite: remnants of the protosolar disk. Science 2006, 314: 1439–1442. 10.1126/science.1132175View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Naraoka H, Mita H, Hamase K, Mita M, Yabuta H, Saito K, Fukushima K, Kitajima F, Sandford SA, Nakamura T, Noguchi T, Okazaki R, Nagao K, Ebihara M, Yurimoto H, Tsuchiyama A, Abe M, Shirai K, Ueno M, Yada T, Ishibashi Y, Okada T, Fujimura A, Mukai T, Yoshikawa M, Kawaguchi J: Preliminary organic compound analysis of microparticles returned from asteroid 25143 Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission. Geochem J 2012, 46: 61–72. 10.2343/geochemj.1.0134View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Naraoka H, Aoki D, Fukushima K, Uesugi M, Ito M, Kitajima F, Mita H, Yabuta H, Takano Y, Yada T, Ishibashi Y, Okada T, Abe M (2014) ToF-SIMS analysis of carbonaceous particles in the sample capsule of the Hayabusa mission. Earth Planet Space in pressGoogle Scholar
- Noguchi T, Nakamura T, Kimura M, Zolensky ME, Tanaka M, Hashimoto T, Konno M, Nakato A, Ogami T, Fujimura A, Abe M, Yada T, Mukai T, Ueno M, Okada T, Shirai K, Ishibashi Y, Okazaki R: Incipient space weathering observed on the surface of Itokawa dust particles. Science 2011, 333: 1121–1125. 10.1126/science.1207794View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sanford S, Aléon J, Alexander CMO'D, Araki T, Bajt S, Baratta GA, Borg J, Brucato JR, Burchell MJ, Busemann H, Butterworth A, Clemett SJ, Cody GD, Colangeli L, Cooper G, D'Hendecourt L, Djouadi Z, Dworkin JP, Ferrini G, Fleckenstein H, Flynn GJ, Franchi IA, Fries M, Gilles MK, Glavin DP, Gounelle M, Grossemy F, Jacobsen C, Keller LP, Kilcoyne ALD, et al.: Organics captured from comet wild 2 by the stardust spacecraft. Science 2006, 314: 1720–1724. 10.1126/science.1135841View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsuchiyama A, Uesugi M, Matsushima T, Michikami T, Kadono T, Nakamura T, Uesugi K, Nakano T, Sandford SA, Noguchi R, Matsumoto T, Matsuno J, Nagano T, Imai Y, Takeuchi A, Suzuki Y, Ogami T, Katagiri J, Ebihara M, Ireland TR, Kitajima F, Nagao K, Naraoka H, Noguchi T, Okazaki R, Yurimoto H, Zolensky ME, Mukai T, Abe M, Yada T, et al.: Three-dimensional structure of Hayabusa samples: origin and evolution of Itokawa regolith. Science 2011, 333: 1121–1125. 10.1126/science.1207807View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Uesugi M, Naraoka M, Ito M, Yabuta H, Kitajima F, Takano Y, Mita H, Ohnishi I, Kebukawa Y, Yada T, Karouji Y, Ishibashi Y, Okada T, Abe M: Sequential analysis of carbonaceous materials in Hayabusa-returned samples for the determination of their origin. Earth Planet Space 2014, 66: 102. 10.1186/1880-5981-66-102View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Urquhart SG, Hitchcock AP, Smith AP, Ade HW, Lidy W, Rightor EG, Mitchell GE: NEXAFS spectromicroscopy of polymers: overview and quantitative analysis of polyurethane polymers. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 1999, 100: 119–135. 10.1016/S0368-2048(99)00043-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yabuta H, Noguchi T, Itoh S, Sakamoto N, Hashiguchi M, Abe K, Tsujimoto S, Kilcoyne ALD, Okubo A, Okazaki R, Tachibana S, Nakamura T, Terada K, Ebihara M, Nagahara H: Evidence of Minimum Aqueous Alteration in Rock-Ice Body: Update of Organic Chemistry and Mineralogy of Ultracarbonaceous Antarctic Micrometeorite (Abstract #2335), 44nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 2013.Google Scholar
- Yada T, Fujimura A, Abe M, Nakamura T, Noguchi T, Okazaki R, Nagao K, Ishibashi Y, Shirai K, Zolenskt ME, Sandford S, Okada T, Uesugi M, Karouji Y, Ogawa M, Yakame S, Ueno M, Mukai T, Yoshikawa M, Kawaguchi J: Hayabusa-returned sample curation in the planetary material sample curation facility of JAXA. Meteorit Planet Sci 2014, 49: 135–153. 10.1111/maps.12027View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yurimoto H, Abe K, Abe M, Ebihara M, Fujimura A, Hashiguchi M, Hashizume K, Ireland TR, Itoh S, Katayama J, Kato C, Kawaguchi J, Kawasaki N, Kitajima F, Kobayashi S, Meike T, Mukai T, Nagao K, Nakamura T, Naraoka H, Noguchi T, Okazaki R, Park C, Sakamoto N, Seto Y, Takei M, Tsuchiyama A, Uesugi M, Wakaki S, Yada T, et al.: Oxygen isotopic compositions of asteroidal materials returned from Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission. Science 2011, 333: 1116–1119. 10.1126/science.1207776View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.