- Full paper
- Open Access
Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances by three-dimensional ionospheric GPS tomography
© Chen et al. 2016
- Received: 1 May 2015
- Accepted: 11 February 2016
- Published: 27 February 2016
The Erratum to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2016 68:122
In this study, we develop a three-dimensional ionospheric tomography with the ground-based global position system (GPS) total electron content observations. Because of the geometric limitation of GPS observation path, it is difficult to solve the ill-posed inverse problem for the ionospheric electron density. Different from methods given by pervious studies, we consider an algorithm combining the least-square method with a constraint condition, in which the gradient of electron density tends to be smooth in the horizontal direction and steep in the vicinity of the ionospheric F2 peak. This algorithm is designed to be independent of any ionospheric or plasmaspheric electron density models as the initial condition. An observation system simulation experiment method is applied to evaluate the performance of the GPS ionospheric tomography in detecting ionospheric electron density perturbation at the scale size of around 200 km in wavelength, such as the medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances.
- Global Position System
- Total Electron Content
- Ionospheric Electron Density
- Total Electron Content Data
- Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique
Since late 1980s, the satellite radio tomography method has been employed to study the ionospheric electron density structure. Austen et al. (1986, 1988) first proposed the ionospheric tomography technique and measured the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) along the line of sight (LOS) from naval navigational satellite system (NNSS) to the ground-based receivers. They further successfully reconstructed the two-dimensional image of the ionospheric electron density from the one-dimensional TEC data by using the technique of computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT). After that, many papers were published regarding the improvement and applications of CIT (Austen et al. 1988; Raymund et al. 1990; Yeh and Raymund 1991; Andreeva et al. 1992; Fremouw et al. 1992; Pryse and Kersley 1992; Fehmers 1994; Kunitake et al. 1995), which show the CIT has become a usable radio technique for the ionospheric electron density reconstruction (Raymund et al. 1994). Recent studies (Pryse 2003; Kersley 2005) presented that combination of the CIT with ionospheric models could help further explore the variations of global/regional ionospheric electron density structures in more detail.
Previous CIT studies usually used the high-rate NNSS observation data to reconstruct the ionospheric electron density structure (Raymund et al. 1990; Kunitake et al. 1995). This kind of low earth orbit (LEO) satellites normally has relatively high ground-track velocity. Therefore, the ionospheric electron density structure can be seen as a “snapshot” for the density inversion during the satellite passing by (within 15–30 min). In the recent decades, scientists use the ground-based global position system (GPS) receivers to derive the TEC along GPS satellites to the receivers. Because GPS-TEC data have fine spatial and temporal resolution, they are used to present the two-dimensional TEC map in the longitude–latitude plane (Wilson et al. 1992; Sardon et al. 1994; Liu et al. 1996). If we employ the CIT technique to the GPS-TEC observation data, we could obtain the altitude information of ionospheric electron density profile additionally. However, due to the slow-moving ground tracks and high elevation angle of GPS satellite, the spatial distribution of GPS-TEC observation data is not enough to reconstruct the three-dimensional electron density structure if the ground-based receivers are sparse. A dense GPS receiver network, such as Japan GPS Earth Observation Network (GEONET), is required to overcome the limitation.
Although there are regions of dense ground-based GPS receivers that could be chosen to perform GPS tomography, it is still difficult to straightforwardly solve the ill-posed inverse problem. This is due to the fact that the high orbit of GPS satellites (around 20,200 km) results in fewer low elevation LOS ray paths and thus less altitudinal information. The other problem is the lack of observations at the higher altitude region resulting in numerous areas that have no LOS ray passing through. Therefore, scientists employ an iterative method with an initial guess value from the ionospheric model, such as the international reference ionosphere (IRI) model, to approach the true solution of ionospheric electron density (Raymund 1995; Bilitza and Reinisch 2008; Ssessanga et al. 2015). As a result, the solutions might be sensitive to the initial guess. Therefore, it might not be suitable for the ionospheric disturbance period when ionospheric electron density may become irregular, such as the periods of solar flare or magnetic storm. In this study, an ionospheric GPS tomography algorithm with the constrained least-square method is developed and used to reconstruct the three-dimensional electron density structure without using any initial model guess. An observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) is further employed to evaluate the performance of GPS tomography method during quiet time and disturbed ionospheric period.
Constraint parameters used in the GPS tomography
In order to generate the synthetic TEC observations for the OSSE, we use the ionospheric empirical model, NeQuick (Radicella and Leitinger 2001), as the model truth. Based on the LOS geometry between GPS satellites and ground-based GPS receivers, the synthetic TEC data are calculated by integrating the NeQuick electron density in each grid box along the GPS observation ray path. The synthetic GPS-TEC observations in the OSSE correspond to realistic GPS-to-receiver geometries that are collected at 10:00 UT on May 23, 2012. Furthermore, the synthetic TEC values are assumed to have no observational error in this study.
The traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are wave-like electron density disturbances that propagate through the ionosphere and cause wave-like TEC disturbances (Davies 1990; Kelley 2011) due to external energy input to the ionosphere and/or plasma instabilities. In mid-latitude, medium-scale TID (MSTID) appears frequently. Its two-dimensional structure in airglow images and TEC disturbances were further observed by ground-based all-sky imager (Ogawa et al. 2002; Shiokawa et al. 2003; Otsuka et al. 2009) and dense GPS receiver network over Japan (Saito et al. 1998; Tsugawa et al. 2004; Otsuka et al. 2011), respectively. However, the TID-triggered three-dimensional electron density structures are hardly known by using 630-nm all-sky images and GPS-TEC observations. The ionospheric tomography is one of the methods to reconstruct the three-dimensional density structure.
Because of the lack of horizontal GPS-TEC observation paths and incomplete path length matrix (aforementioned A matrix), the previous ionospheric tomography methods, such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) (Austen et al. 1986) and multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) (Raymund et al. 1990; Ssessanga et al. 2015), usually use the iteration method with an initial guess value to reconstruct the structure of the ionospheric electron density. These iteration methods are a mathematical procedure that generates a sequence of improving approximate solutions for the inverse problems. However, the solution is sensitive to the initial guess value and becomes the same as the initial value for grids without any radio ray path passing by.
In order to resolve the limitations of the GPS tomography, the algorithm of constrained least-square method is developed and the dense ground-based GPS receiver network around Japan region on May 25, 2012, is employed to evaluate its performance. Furthermore, the reliability of this GPS tomography algorithm is validated through the OSSE during the quiet time of ionosphere. This result indicates that an appropriate three-dimensional electron density structure can be reconstructed by using this GPS tomography algorithm with the ground-based GPS-TEC observations. Then, the electron density perturbation structures with 200 km wavefront above 30°N latitudes are further applied to the model truth given by NeQuick for synthetic MSTID structure. The GPS tomography is successfully employed to reconstruct electron density distribution during the disturbed ionosphere. The tomography results have shown that the density perturbation structure can be reconstructed well.
Otsuka et al. (2013) simulated the density structure of MSTID and found the different morphologies for the daytime and nighttime MSTIDs. Although the mechanism of MSTID is still not yet clear, the daytime MSTID might be caused by a gravity wave, while the nighttime MSTID might be generated by the electrodynamical coupling between the Es layer and F region (Shiokawa et al. 2003; Saito et al. 2007; Otsuka et al. 2007; Seker et al. 2008; Yokoyama et al. 2009). If the MSTID is produced by the electrodynamical coupling effect, a field-aligned structure of density should be observed because the electric field prefers to transport along the magnetic field. In this paper, we simulated the electron density structure of nighttime MSTID by Otsuka et al. (2013) and successfully reconstructed the MSTID density structure by the GPS tomography. It indicates the capability of GPS tomography for the studies of disturbed ionosphere, such as the MSTID. In the future, the developed algorithm of GPS tomography in this paper will be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional electron density structure by the real GPS-TEC observations from GEONET and further provide the near-real-time ionospheric density structure over Japan. In the present version of GPS tomography process, it needs around 30 min (including the GPS-TEC calculation and the reconstruction times) to reproduce the 3D structure of electron density. A Python version of GPS tomography is ongoing to develop to speed up the whole processes. The first result shows the time can be reduced to around 5 min, which could make the “near real time” possible after the program being completed.
CHC has carried out the GPS tomography method and the program coding and drafted the text. AS has given very important conceptions on the algorithm of GPS tomography. CHL has critically evaluated the text for scientific content and elaborated it. MY, SS, and GKS have contributed well in the improvement of GPS tomography program. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The GPS-TEC data are provided by the Geospatial Information Authority in Japan (GEONET, http://www.gsi.go.jp/ENGLISH/index.html). This paper is supported by Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan to National Cheng Kung University under MOST-103-2111-M-006-001-MY2 and NSPO-S-102132.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Andreeva ES, Kunitsyn VE, Tereshchenko ED (1992) Phase difference radio tomography of the ionosphere. Ann Geophys 10:849–855Google Scholar
- Austen JR, Franke SJ, Liu CH, Yeh KC (1986) Applications of computerized tomography techniques to ionospheric research. In: International Beacon Satellite Symposium June 9–14, Oulu Finland, Proceeding part 1, pp 25–36Google Scholar
- Austen JR, Franke SJ, Liu CH (1988) Ionospheric imaging using computerized tomography. Radio Sci 23(3):299–307View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bilitza D, Reinisch B (2008) International reference ionosphere 2007: improvements and new parameters. J Adv Space Res 42(4):599–609View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen CH (2012) Modeling and observational studies of plasma density anomalies and earthquake-triggered disturbances in the mid-latitude ionosphere, PhD thesis, Department of Geophys., Kyoto University, Kyoto, JapanGoogle Scholar
- Davies K (1990) Ionospheric radio. Peter Peregrinus Ltd, LondonView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fehmers G (1994) A new algorithm for ionospheric tomography. In: Kersley L (ed) Proceedings of the International Beacon Satellite Symposium. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, pp 52–55Google Scholar
- Fremouw EJ, Secan JA, Howe BM (1992) Application of stochastic inverse theory to ionospheric tomography. Radio Sci 27:721–732View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hunsucker R (1982) Atmospheric gravity waves generated in the high-latitude ionosphere: a review. Rev Geophys Space Phys 20:293–315View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kelley MC (2011) On the origin of mesoscale TIDs at midlatitudes. Ann Geophys 29:361–366View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kersley L (2005) Ionospheric tomography and its applications in radio science and geophysical investigations. Ann Geophys 48(3):535–548Google Scholar
- Kunitake M, Ohtaka K, Maruyama T, Tokumaru M, Marioka A, Wantabe S (1995) Tomographic imaging of the ionosphere over Japan by the modified truncated SVD method. Ann Geophys 13:1303–1310Google Scholar
- Liu JY, Tsai HF, Jung TK (1996) Total electron content obtained by using the global positioning system. Terr Atmos Ocean Sci 7:107–117Google Scholar
- Ogawa T, Balan N, Otsuka Y, Shiokawa K, Ihara C, Shimomai T, Saito A (2002) Observations and modeling of 630 nm air-glow and total electron content associated with traveling ionospheric disturbances over Shigaraki, Japan. Earth Planets Space 54:45–56View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Otsuka Y, Onoma F, Shiokawa K, Ogawa T, Yamamoto M, Fukao S (2007) Simultaneous observations of nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances and E-region field-aligned irregularities at midlatitude. J Geophys Res 112:A06317. doi:10.1029/2005JA011548 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Otsuka Y, Shiokawa K, Ogawa T, Yokoyama T, Yamamoto M (2009) Spatial relationship of nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances and F region field-aligned irregularities observed with two spaced all-sky airglow imagers and the middle and upper atmosphere radar. J Geophys Res 114:A05302. doi:10.1029/2008JA013902 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Otsuka Y, Kotake N, Shiokawa K, Ogawa T, Tsugawa T, Saito A (2011) Statistical study of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed with a GPS receiver network in Japan. In: Aeronomy of the earth’s atmosphere and ionosphere, IAGA Special Sopron Book Series, vol 2, part 3, pp 291–299. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-0326-1_21
- Otsuka YK, Suzuki S, Nakagawa M, Nishioka K Shiokawa, Tsugawa T (2013) GPS observations of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over Europe. Ann Geophys 31:163–172View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pryse SE (2003) Radio tomography: a new experimental technique. Surv Geophys 24:1–38View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pryse SE, Kersley L (1992) A preliminary experimental test of ionospheric tomography. J Atmos Terr Phys 54:1007–1012View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Radicella SM, Leitinger R (2001) The evolution of the DGR approach to model electron density profiles. Adv Space Res 27(1):35–40View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Raymund TD (1995) Comparison of several ionospheric tomography algorithms. Ann Geophys 13:1254–1262Google Scholar
- Raymund TD, Austen JR, Franke SJ, Lin CH, Klobuchar JA, Sralker J (1990) Application of computerized tomography to the investigation of ionospheric structures. Radio Sci 25(3):771–789View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Raymund TD, Franke SJ, Yeh KC (1994) Ionospheric tomography: its limitations and reconstruction methods. J Atmos Phys 56:637–657View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saito A, Fukao S, Miyazaki S (1998) High resolution mapping of TEC perturbations with the GSI GPS network over Japan. Geophys Res Lett 25:3079–3082View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saito S, Yamamoto M, Hashiguchi H, Maegawa A, Saito A (2007) Observational evidence of coupling between quasi-periodic echoes and medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances. Ann Geophys 25:2185–2194. doi:10.5194/angeo-25-2185-2007 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sardon E, Rius A, Zarraoa N (1994) Estimation of the transmitter and receiver differential biases and the ionospheric total electron content from Global Positioning System observations. Radio Sci 29:577–586View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Seemala GK, Yamamoto M, Saito A, Chen CH (2014) Three-dimensional GPS ionospheric tomography over Japan using constrained least squares. J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:3044–3052. doi:10.1002/2013JA019582 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Seker I, Livneh DJ, Makela JJ, Mathews JD (2008) Tracking F region plasma depletion bands using GPS-TEC, incoherent scatter radar, and all-sky imaging at Arecibo. Earth Planets Space 60:633–646View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shiokawa K, Ihara C, Otsuka Y, Ogawa T (2003) Statistical study of nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances using midlatitude airglow imagers. J Geophys Res 108:1052. doi:10.1029/2002JA009491 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ssessanga N, Kim YH, Kim E (2015) Vertical structure of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances. Geophys Res Lett 42:9156–9165. doi:10.1002/2015GL066093 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsugawa T, Saito A, Otsuka Y (2004) A statistical study of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances using the GPS network in Japan. J Geophys Res 109:A06302. doi:10.1029/2003JA010302 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wilson DB, Mannucci AJ, Edwards CD, Roth T (1992) Global ionospheric maps using a global network of GPS receivers, In: The Interantional Beacon Satellite Symposium, MIT, Cambridge, MA, July 6–12Google Scholar
- Yeh KC, Raymund TD (1991) Limitations of ionospheric imaging by tomography. Radio Sci 26(6):1361–1380. doi:10.1029/91RS01873 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yokoyama T, Hysell D, Otsuka Y, Yamamoto M (2009) Three-dimensional simulation of the coupled Perkins and Es-layer instabilities in the nighttime midlatitude ionosphere. J Geophys Res 114:A03308. doi:10.1029/2008JA013789 Google Scholar