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Interseismic crustal deformation in and around the Atotsugawa fault system, central Japan, detected by InSAR and GNSS
© The Author(s) 2018
- Received: 31 March 2017
- Accepted: 7 February 2018
- Published: 16 February 2018
- Atotsugawa fault
- Interseismic velocity
The Atotsugawa fault system, central Japan, is a 70-km-long active strike-slip fault system, which forms a part of the NKTZ (Fig. 1). The Atotsugawa fault system consists of three fault strands, the Ushikubi, Atotsugawa, and Mozumi–Sukenobu faults (Fig. 1). A dense GNSS network has been established (Fig. 1) and maintained in and around this fault system since 1997 by a university consortium comprised of Nagoya, Kyoto, Hokkaido, and Toyama universities. The continuous GNSS surveys in this network clarified the dextral motion of the Atotsugawa fault system at depth (Hirahara et al. 2003; Ohzono et al. 2011), which is consistent with WNW-ESE compressional stress field (e.g., Katsumata et al. 2010; Takada et al. 2016). In this study, we focus on the velocity field of this area before the 2011 Tohoku–Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0), with the goal of characterizing a more detailed interseismic velocity field in and around the Atotsugawa fault system by combining L-band InSAR and GNSS data.
Interferometric pairs used for the time-series analysis
Perpendicular baseline (m)
Figure 7 shows the mean velocity field after removing the height-dependent term and long-wavelength ramp using the GNSS data. To verify the effects of the correction, we compared Fig. 7 with the mean velocity field without any correction (Fig. 3). The LOS velocity in the focused area (red rectangle) approximately ranges from -10 to 20 mm/yr before the correction (Fig. 3), whereas it ranges from − 5 to 5 mm/yr after the correction (Fig. 7). Thus, such systematic errors are very large, and the phase correction by DEM and GNSS was clearly necessary before the time-series analysis.
We presented a high-resolution interseismic velocity field in and around the Atotsugawa fault system, central Japan, using both GNSS and InSAR. We removed the height-dependent term and long-wavelength phase trend in each interferogram using DEM and GNSS data, respectively. Finally, we applied an InSAR time-series analysis to the corrected interferograms. The resultant LOS velocity field is consistent with dextral fault motion, and it revealed a large velocity gradient across the Ushikubi fault, a major strand of the Atotsugawa fault system. The possibility remains that this sharp gradient is an artifact caused by atmospheric disturbance. However, we can conclude that the velocity gradient does not have its maximum across the Atotsugawa fault. In summary, high spatial resolution SAR images combined with a dense GNSS network enable us to examine the internal structure of the fault system even in the low coherence area due to dense vegetation, steep topography, and heavy winter snowfall.
YT conducted the SAR processing and GNSS observations and drafted the manuscript. TS and TN conducted the GNSS observation and analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
PALSAR Level 1.0 data were provided from the PIXEL (PALSAR Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land surface) group under a cooperative research contract between JAXA and ERI, University of Tokyo. PALSAR data were also provided from JAXA under ALOS2-PI project. The ownership of PALSAR data belongs to JAXA and METI, Japan. GEONET data and DEM were provided by GSI, Japan. Parts of the figures were created by Generic Mapping Tools (Wessel and Smith 1998). Comments by Yosuke Aoki and an anonymous reviewer were helpful in improving the manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Availability of data and materials
Velocity field estimated by InSAR is available by email request to the corresponding author.
This study was supported by MEXT KAKENHI Grant Nos. 26400454, 26109003, and 26109007 to YT, TS, and TN.
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