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Special issue “Geospace exploration by the ERG mission”
Earth, Planets and Space volume 70, Article number: 155 (2018)
The exploration of energization and radiation in geospace (ERG) project was developed to understand the fundamental physical processes operating in the Earth’s inner magnetosphere. A summary of the ERG project is given in this special issue by Miyoshi et al. (2018a). A central component of this project is the spacecraft Arase, named after the Arase River near the ISAS launch range, (ERG). Arase was launched on December 20, 2016, and it has been operating in a highly elliptical orbit with apogee of 6 RE and an inclination of 31°. A brief history of the spacecraft development and the technical features of the spacecraft system are given by Nakamura et al. (2018). The spacecraft has an innovated mission network system described by Takashima et al. (2018). Arase hosts nine state-of-the-art scientific instruments to make in situ observations of particles and fields. The multiple instruments for electron measurements are introduced by Kazama et al. (2017), Kasahara et al. (2018a, b), Mitani et al. (2018), and Higashio et al. (2018). The instruments for ion measurements are introduced by Asamura et al. (2018) and Yokota et al. (2017). The magnetic field measurements are described by Matsuoka et al. (2018), and descriptions of the wave and electric fields are provided by Kasahara et al. (2018a, b), Kasaba et al. (2017), Kumamoto et al. (2018), Ozaki et al. (2018), and Matsuda et al. (2018). The interactions between particles and waves, a critical aspect of the physics of the inner magnetosphere, are diagnosed with a software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer, introduced by Katoh et al. (2018) and Hikishima et al. (2018). The ERG project includes a ground-based observation network that is summarized by Shiokawa et al. (2017). Other key aspects of the ERG project are a program of theory, modeling, and integrating studies described by Seki et al. (2018), and a data processing center called the ERG Science Center, described by Miyoshi et al. (2018b). An example of the data analysis tool development is introduced by Keika et al. (2017). All of these elements together are expected to yield major advancements in our understanding of acceleration, transport, and loss of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts.
Asamura K, Kazama Y, Yokota S, Kasahara S, Miyoshi Y (2018) Low-energy particle experiments-ion mass analyzer (LEPi) onboard the ERG (Arase) satellite. Earth Planets Space 70:70. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0846-0
Higashio N, Takashima T, Shinohara I, Matsumoto H (2018) The extremely high-energy electron experiment (XEP) onboard the Arase (ERG) satellite. Earth Planets Space 70:134. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0901-x
Hikishima M, Kojima H, Katoh Y, Kasahara Y, Kasahara S, Mitani T, Higashio N, Matsuoka A, Miyoshi Y, Asamura K, Takashima T, Yokota S, Kitahara M, Matsuda S (2018) Data processing in Software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer onboard the Arase satellite. Earth Planets Space 70:80. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0856-y
Kasaba Y, Ishisaka K, Kasahara Y, Imachi T, Yagitani S, Kojima H, Matsuda S, Shoji M, Kurita S, Hori T, Shinbori A, Teramoto M, Miyoshi Y, Nakagawa T, Takahashi N, Nishimura Y, Matsuoka A, Kumamoto A, Tsuchiya F, Nomura R (2017) Wire probe antenna (WPT) and electric field detector (EFD) of plasma wave experiment (PWE) aboard the Arase satellite: specifications and initial evaluation results. Earth Planets Space 69:174. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-017-0760-x
Kasahara S, Yokota S, Mitani T, Asamura K, Hirahara M, Shibano Y, Takashima T (2018a) Medium-energy particle experiment-selectron analyzer (MEP-e) for the exploration of energization and radiation in geospace (ERG) mission. Earth Planets Space 70:69. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0847-z
Kasahara Y, Kasaba Y, Kojima H, Yagitani S, Ishisaka K, Kumamoto A, Tsuchiya F, Ozaki M, Matsuda S, Imachi T, Miyoshi Y, Hikishima M, Katoh Y, Ota M, Shoji M, Matsuoka A, Shinohara I (2018b) The plasma wave experiment (PWE) on board the Arase (ERG) satellite. Earth Planets Space 70:86. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0842-4
Katoh Y, Kojima H, Hikishima M, Takashima T, Asamura K, Miyoshi Y, Kasahara Y, Kasahara S, Mitani T, Higashio N, Matsuoka A, Ozaki M, Yagitani S, Yokota S, Matsuda S, Kitahara M, Shinohara I (2018) Software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer on board the Arase satellite. Earth Planets Space 70:4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-017-0771-7
Kazama Y, Wang B-J, Wang S-Y, Ho PTP, Tam SWY, Chang T-F, Chiang C-Y, Asamura K (2017) Low-energy particle experiments-electron analyzer (LEPe) onboard the Arase spacecraft. Earth Planets Space 69:165. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-017-0748-6
Keika K, Miyoshi Y, Machida S, Ieda A, Seki K, Hori T, Miyashita Y, Shoji M, Shinohara I, Angelopoulos V, Lewis JW, Flores A (2017) Visualization tool for three-dimensional plasma velocity distributions (ISEE_3D) as a plug-in for SPEDAS. Earth Planets Space 69:170. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-017-0761-9
Kumamoto A, Tsuchiya F, Kasahara Y, Kasaba Y, Kojima H, Yagitani S, Ishisaka K, Imachi T, Ozaki M, Matsuda S, Shoji M, Matsuoka A, Katoh Y, Miyoshi Y, Obara T (2018) High frequency analyzer (HFA) of plasma wave experiment (PWE) onboard the Arase spacecraft. Earth Planets Space 70:82. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0854-0
Matsuda S, Kasahara Y, Kojima H, Kasaba Y, Yagitani S, Ozaki M, Imachi T, Ishisaka K, Kumamoto A, Tsuchiya F, Ota M, Kurita S, Miyoshi Y, Hikishima M, Matsuoka A, Shinohara I (2018) Onboard software of plasma wave experiment aboard Arase: instrument management and signal processing of waveform capture/onboard frequency analyzer. Earth Planets Space 70:75. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0838-0
Matsuoka A, Teramoto M, Nomura R, Nose M, Fujimoto A, Tanaka Y, Shinohara M, Nagatsuma T, Shiokawa K, Obana Y, Miyoshi Y, Mita M, Takashima T, Shinohara I (2018) The ARASE (ERG) magnetic field investigation. Earth Planets Space 70:43. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0800-1
Mitani T, Takashima T, Kasahara S, Miyake W, Hirahara M (2018) High-energy electron experiments (HEP) aboard the ERG (Arase) satellite. Earth Planets Space 70:77. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0853-1
Miyoshi Y, Shinohara I, Takashima T, Asamura K, Higashio N, Mitani T, Kasahara S, Yokota S, Kazama Y, Wang S-Y, Tam SWY, Ho PTP, Kasahara Y, Kasaba Y, Yagitani S, Matsuoka A, Kojima H, Katoh Y, Shiokawa K, Seki K (2018a) Geospace exploration project ERG. Earth Planets Space 70:101. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0862-0
Miyoshi Y, Hori T, Shoji M, Teramoto M, Chang TF, Segawa T, Umemura N, Matsuda S, Kurita S, Keika K, Miyashita Y, Seki K, Tanaka Y, Nishitani N, Kasahara S, Yokota S, Matsuoka A, Kasahara Y, Asamura K, Takashima T, Shinohara I (2018b) The ERG Science Center. Earth Planets Space 70:96. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0867-8
Nakamura Y, Fukuda S, Shibano Y, Ogawa H, Sakai S-I, Shimizu S, Soken E, Miyazawa Y, Toyota H, Kukita A, Maru Y, Nakatsuka J, Sakai T, Takeuchi S, Maki K, Mita M, Ogawa E, Kakehashi Y, Nitta K, Asamura K, Takashima T, Shinohara I (2018) Exploration of energization and radiation in geospace (ERG): challenges, development, and operation of satellite systems. Earth Planets Space 70:102. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0863-z
Ozaki M, Yagitani S, Kasahara Y, Kojima H, Kasaba Y, Kumamoto A, Tsuchiya F, Matsuda S, Matsuoka A, Sasaki T, Yumoto T (2018) Magnetic search coil (MSC) of plasma wave experiment (PWE) aboard the Arase (ERG) satellite. Earth Planets Space 70:76. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0837-1
Seki K, Miyoshi Y, Ebihara Y, Katoh Y, Amano T, Saito S, Shoji M, Nakamizo A, Keika K, Hori T, Nakano Sy, Watanabe S, Kamiya K, Takahashi N, Omura Y, Nose M, Fok M-C, Tanaka T, Ieda A, Yoshikawa A (2018) Theory, modeling, and integrated studies in the Arase (ERG) project. Earth Planets Space 70:17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0785-9
Shiokawa K, Katoh Y, Hamaguchi Y, Yamamoto Y, Adachi T, Ozaki M, Oyama S-I, Nose M, Nagatsuma T, Tanaka Y, Otsuka Y, Miyoshi Y, Kataoka R, Takagi Y, Takeshita Y, Shinbori A, Kurita S, Hori T, Nishitani N, Shinohara I, Tsuchiya F, Obana Y, Suzuki S, Takahashi N, Seki K, Kadokura A, Hosokawa K, Ogawa Y, Connors M, Ruohoniemi JM, Engebretson M, Turunen E, Ulich T, Manninen J, Raita T, Kero A, Oksanen A, Back M, Kauristie K, Mattanen J, Baishev D, Kurkin V, Oinats A, Pashinin A, Vasilyev R, Rakhmatulin R, Bristow W, Karjala M (2017) Ground-based instruments of the PWING project to investigate dynamics of the inner magnetosphere at subauroral latitudes as a part of the ERG-ground coordinated observation network. Earth Planets Space 69:160. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-017-0745-9
Takashima T, Ogawa E, Asamura K, Hikishima M (2018) Design of a mission network system using SpaceWire for scientific payloads onboard the Arase spacecraft. Earth Planets Space 70:71. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0839-z
Yokota S, Kasahara S, Mitani T, Asamura K, Hirahara M, Takashima T, Yamamoto K, Shibano Y (2017) Medium-energy particle experiments-ion mass analyzer (MEP-i) onboard ERG (Arase). Earth Planets Space 69:172. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-017-0754-8
All authors of this article served as guest editors for this special issue. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Nagai, T., Mauk, B., Santolik, O. et al. Special issue “Geospace exploration by the ERG mission”. Earth Planets Space 70, 155 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0926-1