- Open Access
The origin of dust in galaxies revisited: the mechanism determining dust content
© The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences; TERRAPUB. 2011
- Received: 8 November 2010
- Accepted: 25 February 2011
- Published: 2 February 2012
The origin of cosmic dust is a fundamental issue in planetary science. This paper revisits the origin of dust in galaxies, in particular, in the Milky Way, by using a chemical evolution model of a galaxy composed of stars, interstellar medium, metals (elements heavier than helium), and dust. We start from a review of time-evolutionary equations of the four components, and then, we present simple recipes for the stellar remnant mass and yields of metal and dust based on models of stellar nucleosynthesis and dust formation. After calibrating some model parameters with the data from the solar neighborhood, we have confirmed a shortage of the stellar-dust-production rate relative to the dust-destruction rate by supernovae if the destruction efficiency suggested by theoretical works is correct. If the dust-mass growth by material accretion in molecular clouds is active, the observed dust amount in the solar neighborhood is reproduced. We present a clear analytic explanation of the mechanism for determining dust content in galaxies after the activation of accretion growth: a balance between accretion growth and supernova destruction. Thus, the dust content is independent of the uncertainty of the stellar dust yield after the growth activation. The timing of the activation is determined by a critical metal mass fraction which depends on the growth and destruction efficiencies. The solar system formation seems to have occurred well after the activation and plenty of dust would have existed in the proto-solar nebula.
- Cosmic dust
- physical processes of dust in the interstellar medium
- galaxy evolution
Cosmic dust grains are negligible in mass in the Universe. Nevertheless, they play a significant role in many astronomical, astrophysical, and astrochemical aspects: extinction (absorption and scattering) matter of radiation, an emission source in infrared wavelengths, a coolant and a heat source in the interstellar medium (ISM) and intergalactic medium (IGM), and a site for the formation of molecules. Therefore, dust is one of the most important constituents of the Universe. Dust is also important for planetary science because grains are material for planets.
Dust grains are formed in rapidly-cooling gas of stellar outflows (Draine and Salpeter, 1977; Yamamoto and Hasegawa, 1977). We call such grains ‘stardust’. Sources of the stardust are asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, su-pernovae (SNe), red supergiants, novae, Wolf-Rayet stars, and so on (e.g., Gehrz, 1989). The main source of the star-dust in the present Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds is thought to be AGB stars (Gehrz, 1989; Draine, 2009; Matsuura et al., 2009).
SNe may also produce a significant amount of stardust (Kozasa and Hasegawa, 1987; Todini and Ferrara, 2001; Nozawa et al., 2003, 2007; Schneider et al., 2004; see also Kozasa et al., 2009). Stardust from SNe was particularly important in the early Universe because the time for stars to evolve to the AGB phase is typically about 1 Gyr, but the cosmic time in the early Universe is less than this (Morgan and Edmunds, 2003; Maiolino et al., 2004; Dwek et al., 2007; but see also Valiante et al., 2009). The ‘first’ star-dust may have also played an important role in changing the mode of star formation from massive-star dominated to present-day Sun-like-star dominated (Schneider et al., 2003, 2006).
However, dust formation by SNe remains observation-ally controversial. The first detections of a few M⊙ dust freshly formed, which is much larger than expected, in Cassiopeia A (Cas A) and Kepler SN remnants (SNRs) by submillimeter observations with SCUBA (Dunne et al, 2003; Morgan et al., 2003) were almost contaminated by foreground dust in the ISM on the sight-lines (Krause et al, 2004; Gomez et al, 2009). Recent infrared observations with the Spiter Space Telescope and AKARI and sub-millimeter observations with Herschel and BLAST of Cas A and other SNRs are in agreement with theoretical expectations of 0.01–0.1 M⊙ per one SN (Rho et al, 2008; Sakon et al., 2009; Nozawa et al, 2010; Barlow et al, 2010; Sibthorpe et al, 2010).
Once stardust grains are injected into the ISM, they are processed there. The grains in hot gas are bombarded by thermally-moving protons and sputtered (Onaka and Kamijo, 1978; Draine and Salpeter, 1979). SN shockwaves probably destroy dust grains by grain-grain collisional shattering as well as sputtering (e.g., Dwek and Arendt, 1992; Jones et al, 1994, 1996; Nozawa et al, 2006; Silvia et al, 2010). This destruction process is widely accepted and observational evidence of the destruction has been found in several SNRs, especially with the Spitzer Space Telescope (Arendt et al, 1991,2010; Borkowski et al, 2006; Williams et al., 2006; Dwek et al, 2008; Sankrit et al., 2010; but see Mouri and Taniguchi, 2000).
Assuming the destruction efficiency predicted theoretically, the life-time of dust grains is found to be of the order of 100 Myr (McKee, 1989; Draine, 1990; Jones et al., 1994, 1996). On the other hand, the injection time of stardust is of the order of 1 Gyr (e.g., Gehrz, 1989). Thus, another efficient channel of dust formation is required to maintain dust content in galaxies. The most plausible mechanism is accretion growth in the ISM (Draine, 1990, 2009); in dense molecular clouds, atoms and molecules of some refractory elements and compounds accrete onto pre-existing grains and may change from the gas phase to the solid phase. Note that, unlike the sticking growth of grains well studied in protoplanetary disks, this accretion growth causes an increase in dust mass. This type of growth is favored to explain the observed depletions of some elements in the gas phase of the ISM relative to solar abundance. The correlation between the degree of depletion and the density in the ISM particularly suggests this process (e.g., Savage and Sembach, 1996; Jenkins, 2009). It is also suggested that an efficient growth is required to explain the massive dust mass observed in the early Universe (Michalowski et al., 2010).
Since the pioneering work by Dwek and Scalo (1980), much theoretical work on dust-content evolution in galaxies has been carried out (Dwek, 1998; Edmunds and Eales, 1998; Lisenfeld and Ferrara, 1998; Hirashita, 1999a, b, c; Hirashita et al., 2002; Edmunds, 2003; Inoue, 2003; Morgan and Edmunds, 2003; Dwek et al., 2007; Calura et al., 2008; Zhukovska et al, 2008; Valiante et al., 2009; Asano et al., 2011; Dwek and Cherchneff, 2011; Gall et al, 2011a, b; Mattsson, 2011; Pipino et al, 2011). These works are based on the evolutionary model of elemental abundance in galaxies called the chemical evolution model (Tinsley, 1980 for a review) and incorporate some (or all) of the three processes of formation, destruction, and growth of dust. One of the main results from recent works is the importance of accretion growth.
This paper presents a new interpretation of the mechanism for determining dust content in galaxies. Previous works imply that the mechanism is a balance between dust destruction by SNe and accretion growth in the ISM. However, to date, this point has not been discussed clearly. This paper analytically justifies this implication. For this aim, a simple one-zone model is sufficient. In addition, we present new simple recipes describing stellar remnant mass and yields of elements and dust from state-of-the-art models of stellar nucleosynthesis and the formation of stardust.
Section 2 presents a review of the basic equations. In Section 3, we present new simple recipes of stellar remnant mass and yields. In Section 4, we calibrate some model parameters to reproduce the observed properties of the solar neighborhood. Section 5 presents our analytical interpretation of the mechanism for determining dust content in galaxies, and further discussions are presented in Section 6. Experts in this field may go straight to Section 5 which is the new result of this paper.
Throughout this paper, we call elements heavier than helium ‘metal’ according to the custom of astronomy. We adopt the metal mass fraction (so-called metallicity) in the Sun of Z⊙ = 0.02 (Anders and Grevesse, 1989) conventionally, although recent measurements suggest a smaller value of 0.0134 (Asplund et al., 2009).
2.1 Equations of chemical and dust amount evolution
I, I Z , and Id are the ISM, metal, and dust infall rates from the IGM, respectively. O, O Z , and Od are the ISM, metal, and dust outflow rates to the IGM, respectively. In this paper, we do not consider any outflows (O = O Z = Od = 0), but consider only an ISM infall I (no metal and dust in the infalling gas: I Z = Id = 0), which is required to reproduce the metallicity distribution of stars nearby the Sun. 1 1 The reason why we omit any outflows is that we do not know the transport mechanism of metal and dust from galaxies to the IGM (e.g., Bianchi and Ferrara, 2005). However, this omission may be inconsistent with detections of metal and dust in the IGM (e.g., Songaila and Cowie, 1996; Menard et al., 2010). 2 2
In the dust mass equation (Eq. (4)), there are two additional terms; Dsn is the dust-destruction rate by SNe and Gac is the dust-growth rate in the ISM by metal accretion. These two terms are discussed in Section 2.5 and Section 2.6 in detail.
2.2 Star formation and infall rates
Parameters and values for the solar neighborhood.
(1, 50), (2, 20), (3, 15), and (5, 10)
(1.5, 1), (1.5, 2), (3, 0.5), (3, 1), (3, 2), (6, 0.5), and (6, 1)
0.01, 0.02, and 0.04
0.01, 0.1, and 1
2.3 Stellar mass spectrum and returned mass rate
The stellar life-time τ1f(m) is calculated by the formula of Raiteri et al. (1996) which is a fitting function of Padova stellar evolutionary tracks (Bertelli et al., 1994). This formula is a function of stellar mass m and metallicity Z. However, the Z-dependence is weak. Thus, we neglect it (we always set Z = Z⊙ in the formula).
2.4 Stellar yields of ‘metal‘ and dust
2.5 Dust destruction by supernova blast waves
The effective mass swept by a dust-destructive shock wave, ϵmsn is the important parameter. It is estimated to be ~ 1000 M⊙, namely ϵ ~ 0.1 and msn ~ 104M2299; (McKee, 1989; Nozawa et al., 2006). Recent models for starburst galaxies in the early Universe often assume an effective mass of ϵmsn ~ 100 M⊙ which is a factor of 10 smaller than our fiducial value (Dwek et al, 2007; Pipino et al, 2011; Gall et al, 2011a). Their argument is that starburst activity produces multiple SNe which make the ISM highly inhomogeneous and the dust-destruction efficiency decreases in such a medium. However, the solar neighborhood is not the case, and, thus, we keep ϵmsn ~ 1000 M⊙.
2.6 Dust growth by ‘metal’ accretion in the ISM
This time-scale is very uncertain, but we will obtain τac,0 = 3 × 106 yr as the fiducial value in Section 4.2 in order to reproduce the dust-to-metal ratio in the solar neighborhood with an SN destruction efficiency of ϵmsn = 1000 M⊙. This value can be obtained with a set of parameters of a = 0.1 μm (typical size in the ISM of the Milky Way), σ = 3 g cm−3 (compact silicates), sZ = 1, vZ = 0.2 km s−1 (56 Fe as an accreting metal atom and thermal temperature of 100 K), , and Xcold = 0.2. This data set is just an example, but ensures that the time-scale is not outrageous.
There is a discussion that the lifetime of dense clouds (or the recycling time-scale of dense gas) should be longer than the accretion growth time-scale for an efficient dust growth (Zhukovska et al., 2008; Dwek and Cherchneff, 2011). According to these authors, the lifetime is long enough to realize an efficient dust growth in the Milky Way and even in starburst in the early Universe. Another issue is the effect of grain-size distribution which is discussed in Hirashita (2011).
In this section, we present new simple formulas to describe the stellar remnant mass and yields of metal and dust which are useful to input into the chemical evolution codes. We represent all elements heavier than helium as just a ‘metal’ in the formulas for simplicity, while yields of various elements are presented in the literature. We consider three types of stellar death: white dwarfs through the AGB phase, core-collapse Type II SNe, and a direct collapse leading to a black-hole called a ‘collapser’ (Heger et al., 2003). In this paper, we assume the mass range for the SNe to be 8–40 M⊙ (Heger et al., 2003). The stars with a mass below or above this mass range become AGB stars, or ‘collapsers’, respectively.
We neglect Type Ia SNe for simplicity. This population of SNe is the major source of the element iron (Iwamoto et al, 1999) and may be the source of iron dust (Calura et al., 2008). However, in respect of the total stardust mass budget, the contribution of SNe Ia relative to SNe II is always less than 1–10% (Zhukovska et al., 2008; Pipino et al., 2011). Since we are dealing with metal and dust each as a single component, we can safely neglect the contribution of SNe Ia.
Let us calibrate the parameters in the chemical and dust evolution model of galaxies so as to reproduce the properties of the solar neighborhood in the Milky Way. There are two parameters in the chemical evolution part: the time-scales of star formation, τsf, and infall, τin. There are two additional parameters in the dust-content evolution: the time-scale of the ISM accretion growth, τac,0, and the efficiency of the dust destruction, ϵmsn. In addition, there are two parameters reflecting the uncertainties of the metal and dust yields, f Z and ξ. Table 1 is a summary of these parameters and values.
Note that we do not apply any statistical method to justify the goodness of the reproduction of the observational constraints throughout this paper because our aim is not to find the best fit solution for the constraints but to demonstrate the dust-content evolution in galaxies qualitatively. This is partly due to the weakness of the observational constraints and due to the large uncertainties of dust physics itself.
4.1 Chemical evolution at the solar neighborhood
From these three comparisons, we finally adopt the case of (τSF/Gyr, τin/Gyr) = (3, 15) as the fiducial set for the Milky Way (or more precisely, for the solar neighborhood) in this paper.
4.2 Dust content evolution at the solar neighborhood
If there is neither destruction nor accretion growth of dust, the dust-to-gas ratio evolution is just the metallicity evolution multiplied by the condensation efficiency of star-dust, ξ, as shown by the dotted line. We have assumed ξ = 0.1 for this line. Once the SN destruction of dust is turned on with a standard efficiency as ϵmsn = 1 × 103M⊙ (McKee, 1989; Nozawa et al., 2006), the dust amount is reduced by a factor of ten as shown by the dot-dashed line. This confirms that the dust destruction is very efficient and the stardust injection is too small to compensate for the destruction (e.g., Draine, 1990; Tielens, 1998). Then we need the accretion growth in the ISM to reproduce the dust-togas ratio, ~10−2, in the present Milky Way. If we assume a time-scale of τac,0 = 3 × 106 yr, the dust-to-gas-ratio evolution becomes the solid line and reaches ≃ 10−2 which, after several Gyr, is almost two orders of magnitude larger than the case without growth.
Equation (30) shows that the final value of δ is determined by the equilibrium between the SN destruction and the accretion growth in the ISM. The time-scale to reach equilibrium is 1/(b – a). This is relatively short in the fiducial case. For example, it is 0.3 Gyr when Z = 0.02. This means that the δ evolution proceeds with keeping the equilibrium between SN destruction and the accretion growth, or equivalently, δ = δ∞ after Z exceeds Zc. This behavior is also found by comparing the two time-scales, τsn and τac in Fig. 8; once τac becomes shorter than τsn at about 4 Gyr at which Z exceeds Zc, τac turns around and approaches τsn again. This is realized by the reduction of the term (1 − δ) in τac (see Eq. (17)) when δ increases from ~0 to δ∞. Such a kind of self-regulation process determines the dust-to-metal ratio δ.
6.1 Effect of uncertainties of yields
6.2 What kind of dust is formed by the ISM growth?
We have shown that the main production channel of dust is the accretion growth in the ISM of the present-day Milky Way. This conclusion has also been reported in the literature. For example, Zhukovska et al. (2008) argued that the mass fraction of stardusts in the total dust is only 0.1–1% based on a more sophisticated chemical evolution model than in this paper (see their figure 15); more than 99% of dust is originated from accretion growth in the ISM. It is also well known that some interplanetary dust particles show a highly-enhanced abundance of deuterium and 15N relative to the solar composition, which is a signature of a molecular cloud origin because such isotopic fractiona-tions are expected in a low temperature environment (e.g., Messenger, 2000). Therefore, dust produced by the ISM accretion exists. Then, we have a very important question; what kinds of dust species are formed by the accretion growth in the ISM?
In molecular clouds, many kinds of ices such as H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH have been detected (e.g., Gibb et al., 2000). These ices are condensed onto pre-existent grains. In these ices, some chemical reactions and ultraviolet photolysis (and cosmic rays) process the material and may make it refractory. As a result, so-called ‘core-mantle grains’ coated by refractory organics would be formed (e.g., Li and Greenberg, 1997). Indeed, such a grain has been found in cometary dust: olivine particles produced by a Type II SN coated by organic matter which seems to be formed in a cold molecular cloud (Messenger et al., 2005). Therefore, the ISM dust probably has core-mantle or layered structures. Moreover, the composition can be heterogeneous: for example, graphite coated by silicate, silicate coated by graphite, silicate coated by iron, etc. The formation of such grains does not seem to be studied well. Much more experimental and theoretical work is highly encouraged.
If we can find signatures of the dust accretion growth in the ISM of galaxies by astronomical observations (i.e. very distant remote-sensing), it proves the growth to be ubiquitous. Possible evidence already obtained is a huge mass of dust in galaxies which requires accretion growth as discussed in this paper. It is worth studying how to distinguish stardust grains (or grain cores) and ISM dust (or mantle) by observations, e.g., spectropolarimetry, in the future.
6.3 Dust amount in the proto-solar nebula
We have shown that the dust amount is very small before ISM growth becomes active. For example, the dust-to-gas mass ratio is of the order of 10−4 during the first few Gyr following the formation of the Milky Way (or the onset of the major star formation in the solar neighborhood). If the dust-to-gas ratio in the proto-solar nebula was 10−4, planet formation might have been difficult. Fortunately, the activation of ISM growth is considered to have been about 8 Gyr ago in the solar neighborhood. Thus well before the solar-system formation. Indeed, we expect a dust-to-gas ratio of several times 10−3 at 4–5 Gyr ago (see Fig. 7). Moreover, the dust-to-gas ratio may be much enhanced in the proto-solar nebula relative to the average ISM. This is because the accretion growth is more efficient at a higher density and the density in the proto-solar nebula is several orders of magnitude higher than that in molecular clouds. Therefore, even if the solar-system formation occurred before the activation of ISM growth globally, dust growth might have been active locally in the proto-solar nebula. In this case, the planet formation is always possible if there is enough metal to accrete onto the pre-existent seed grains, even before global growth activation. This is an interesting issue to relate to the Galactic Habitable Zone where complex life can be formed (Lineweaver et al., 2004). We will investigate this more in the future.
1 Without gas infall from intergalactic space, we would expect a much larger number of low-metallicity stars in the solar neighborhood than is observed. This is called the ‘G-dwarf problem’ (e.g., Pagel, 1989).
2 The origin of intergalactic metals and dust is galactic outflows and the amount ejected from galaxies is the same order of that remained in galaxies (e.g., Ménard et al., 2010 for dust; see also Inoue and Kamaya, 2003, 2004, 2010). Dust grains may be ejected from galaxies more efficiently than metals because the grains receive momentum through radiation pressure (Bianchi and Ferrara, 2005). Even in this case, our discussion about the dust-to-metal ratio in Section 5 would not be affected essentially by the omission of this selective removal of dust, although the set of model parameters which can reproduce the observations would change. In any case, this point would be interesting for future work.
3 The micro-process of the destruction considered in Nozawa et al. (2007) is sputtering by hot gas.
4 The terms ‘mixed’ and ‘unmixed’ refer to the elemental mixing in the SN ejecta (Nozawa et al., 2003). In the ‘mixed’ case, there is no layer where C is more abundant than O, so only silicate, troilite, and corundum grains can be formed. On the other hand, the ‘unmixed’ case has a C-rich layer and Fe layer and can form carbon and iron grains as well as silicate.
The author thanks anonymous referees for their many suggestions which were useful to improve the presentation and the quality of this paper. The author is grateful to T Kozasa and A. Habe for interesting discussions and for their hospitality during my stay in Hokkaido University, Sapporo, where this work was initiated, to R. Asano, H. Hirashita, and T T Takeuchi for many discussions, to T Nozawa for providing his dust yields in SNe, and to H. Kimura, the chair of the convener of the ‘Cosmic Dust’ session in the AOGS 2010 meeting, for inviting me to the interesting meeting in Hyderabad, India. This work is supported by KAKENHI (the Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists B: 19740108) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan.
- Anders, E. and N. Grevesse, Abundances of the elements—Meteoritic and solar, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 53, 197–214, 1989.Google Scholar
- Arendt, R. G., E. Dwek, and R. Petre, An infrared analysis of Puppis A, Astrophys. J., 368, 474–485, 1991.Google Scholar
- Arendt, R. G., E. Dwek, W. P. Blair, P. Ghavamian, U. Hwang, K. S. Long, R. Petre, J. Rho, and P. F. Winkler, Spitzer observations of dust destruction in the Puppis A supernova remnant, Astrophys. J., 725, 585– 597, 2010.Google Scholar
- Asano, R., T. T. Takeuchi, H. Hirashita, and A. K. Inoue, Dust formation history of galaxies: a critical role of metallicity for the dust mass growth by accreting materials in the interstellar medium, Earth Planets Space, 2011 (submitted).Google Scholar
- Asplund, M., N. Grevesse, A. J. Sauval, and P. Scott, The chemical composition of the sun, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 47, 481–522, 2009.Google Scholar
- Barlow, M. J., O. Krause, B. M. Swinyard, B. Sibthorpe, M.-A. Besel, R. Wesson, R. J. Ivison, L. Dunne et al., A Herschel PACS and SPIRE study of the dust content of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant, Astron. Astrophys., 518, L138, 2010.Google Scholar
- Bertelli, G., A. Bressan, C. Chiosi, F. Fagotto, and E. Nasi, Theoretical isochrones from models with new radiative opacities, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl., 106, 275–302, 1994.Google Scholar
- Bianchi, S. and A. Ferrara, Intergalactic medium metal enrichment through dust sputtering, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 358, 379–396, 2005.Google Scholar
- Bianchi, S. and R. Schneider, Dust formation and survival in supernova ejecta, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 378, 973–982, 2007.Google Scholar
- Borkowski, K. J., B. J. Williams, S. P. Reynolds, W P. Blair, P. Ghavamian, R. Sankrit, S. P. Hendrick, K. S. Long et al., Dust destruction in Type Ia supernova remnants in the large magellanic cloud, Astrophys. J., 642, L141–L144, 2006.Google Scholar
- Calura, F, A. Pipino, and F Matteucci, The cycle of interstellar dust in galaxies of different morphological types, Astron. Astrophys., 479, 669– 685, 2008.Google Scholar
- Chabrier, G., Galactic stellar and substellar initial mass function, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 115,763–795, 2003.Google Scholar
- Dopita, M. A. and S. D. Ryder, On the law of star formation in disk galaxies, Astrophys. J., 430, 163–178, 1996.Google Scholar
- Draine, B. T, Evolution of interstellar dust, in The Evolution of the Interstellar Medium, 13 pp, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 1990.Google Scholar
- Draine, B. T., Interstellar dust models and evolutionary implications, in Cosmic Dust—Near and Far, edited by Henning, T., E. Grün, J. Steinacker, 20 pp, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009.Google Scholar
- Draine, B. T. and E. E. Salpeter, Time-dependent nucleation theory, J. Chem. Phys., 67, 2230–2235, 1977.Google Scholar
- Draine, B. T. and E. E. Salpeter, Destruction mechanisms for interstellar dust, Astrophys. J., 231, 438–455, 1979.Google Scholar
- Dunne, L., S. Eales, R. Ivison, H. Morgan, and M. Edmunds, Type II supernovae as a significant source of interstellar dust, Nature, 424, 285– 287, 2003.Google Scholar
- Dwek, E., The evolution of the elemental abundances in the gas and dust phases of the galaxy, Astrophys. J., 501, 643–665, 1998.Google Scholar
- Dwek, E. and R. G. Arendt, Dust-gas interactions and the infrared emission from hot astrophysical plasmas, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 30,11–50, 1992.Google Scholar
- Dwek, E. and I. Cherchneff, The origin of dust in the early universe: Probing the star formation history of galaxies by their dust content, Astrophys. J., 727, 63, 2011.Google Scholar
- Dwek, E. and J. M. Scalo, The evolution of refractory interstellar grains in the solar neighborhood, Astrophys. J., 239, 193–211, 1980.Google Scholar
- Dwek, E., F Galliano, and A. P. Jones, The evolution of dust in the early universe with applications to the galaxy SDSS J1148+5251, Astrophys. J., 662, 927–939, 2007.Google Scholar
- Dwek, E., R. G. Arendt, P. Bouchet, D. N. Burrows, P. Challis, I. J. Danziger, J. M. De Buizer, R. D. Gehrz et al., Infrared and X-ray evidence for circumstellar grain destruction by the blast wave of Supernova 1987A, Astrophys. J., 676, 1029–1039, 2008.Google Scholar
- Edmunds, M. G., An elementary model for the dust cycle in galaxies, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 328, 223–236, 2003.Google Scholar
- Edmunds, M. G. and S. A. Eales, Maximum dust masses in galaxies, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 299, L29–L31, 1998.Google Scholar
- Elmegreen, B. G., Star formation on galactic scales: Empirical laws, in Ecole Evry Schatzman 2010: Star Formation in the Local Universe, Lecture 1 of 5, arXiv:1101.3108, 2011.Google Scholar
- Ferrarotti, A. S. and H.-P Gail, Composition and quantities of dust produced by AGB-stars and returned to the interstellar medium, Astron. Astrophys., 447, 553–576, 2006.Google Scholar
- Gall, C, A. C. Andersen, and J. Hjorth, Genesis and evolution of dust in galaxies in the early Universe I. Modeling dust evolution in starburst galaxies, Astron. Astrophys., 528, 13, 2011a.Google Scholar
- Gall, C, A. C. Andersen, and J. Hjorth, Genesis and evolution of dust in galaxies in the early Universe II. Rapid dust evolution in quasars at z > 6, Astron. Astrophys., 528, 14, 2011b.Google Scholar
- Gehrz, R., Sources of stardust in the galaxy, in Interstellar Dust, edited by Allamandola, L. J. and A. G. G. M. Tielens, 445 pp, International Astronomical Union, Symposium no. 135, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1989.Google Scholar
- Gibb, E. L. et al., An inventory of interstellar Ices toward the embedded protostar W33A, Astrophys. J., 536, 347–356, 2000.Google Scholar
- Gomez, H. L., L. Dunne, R. J. Ivison, E. M. Reynoso, M. A. Thompson, B. Sibthorpe, S. A. Eales, T. M. Delaney, S. Maddox, and K. Isaak, Accounting for the foreground contribution to the dust emission towards Kepler’s supernova remnant, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 397, 1621– 1632, 2009.Google Scholar
- Heger, A., C. L. Fryer, S. E. Woosley, N. Langer, and D. H. Hartmann, How massive single stars end their life, Astrophys. J., 591, 288–300, 2003.Google Scholar
- Hirashita, H., Global law for the dust-to-gas ratio of spiral galaxies, Astrophys. J., 510, L99–L102, 1999a.Google Scholar
- Hirashita, H., Dust-to-gas ratio and phase transition of interstellar medium, Astron. Astrophys., 344, L87–L89, 1999b.Google Scholar
- Hirashita, H., Dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity in dwarf galaxies, Astrophys. J., 522, 220–224, 1999c.Google Scholar
- Hirashita, H., Dust growth timescale and mass function of molecular clouds in the galaxy, Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn., 52, 585–588, 2000.Google Scholar
- Hirashita, H., Effects of grain size distribution on the interstellar dust mass growth, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 416, 1340, 2011.Google Scholar
- Hirashita, H., Y. Y Tajiri, and H. Kamaya, Dust-to-gas ratio and star formation history of blue compact dwarf galaxies, Astron. Astrophys., 388, 439–445, 2002.Google Scholar
- Inoue, A. K., Evolution of dust-to-metal ratio in galaxies, Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn., 55, 901–909, 2003.Google Scholar
- Inoue, A. K. and H. Kamaya, Constraint on intergalactic dust from thermal history of intergalactic medium, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 341, L7– L11, 2003.Google Scholar
- Inoue, A. K. and H. Kamaya, Amount of intergalactic dust: constraints from distant supernovae and the thermal history of the intergalactic medium, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 350, 729–744, 2004.Google Scholar
- Inoue, A. K. and H. Kamaya, Intergalactic dust and its photoelectric heating, Earth Planets Space, 62, 69–79, 2010.Google Scholar
- Iwamoto, K., F Brachwitz, K. Nomoto, N. Kishimoto, H. Umeda, W R. Hix, and F.-K. Thielemann, Nucleosynthesis in Chandrasekhar mass models for Type IA supernovae and constraints on progenitor systems and burning-front propagation, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 125, 439–462, 1999.Google Scholar
- Jenkins, E. B., A unified representation of gas-phase element depletions in the interstellar medium, Astrophys. J., 700, 1299–1348, 2009.Google Scholar
- Jones, A. P., A. G. G. M. Tielens, D. J. Hollenbach, and C. F McKee, Grain destruction in shocks in the interstellar medium, Astrophys. J., 433,797–810, 1994.Google Scholar
- Jones, A. P., A. G. G. M. Tielens, and D. J. Hollenbach, Grain shattering in shocks: The interstellar grain size distribution, Astrophys. J., 469, 740– 764, 1996.Google Scholar
- Karakas, A. I., Updated stellar yields from asymptotic giant branch models, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 403, 1413–1425, 2010.Google Scholar
- Kennicutt, R. C, The global schmidt law in star-forming galaxies, Astrophys. J., 498, 541–552, 1998.Google Scholar
- Kimura, H., I. Mann, and E. K. Jessberger, Composition, structure, and size distribution of dust in the local interstellar cloud, Astrophys. J., 583, 314–321, 2003.Google Scholar
- Kozasa, T. and H. Hasegawa, Grain formation through nucleation process in astrophysical environments. II—Nucleation and grain growth accompanied by chemical reaction—, Prog. Theor. Phys., 77, 1402–1410, 1987.Google Scholar
- Kozasa, T., T. Nozawa, N. Tominaga, H. Umeda, K. Maeda, and K. Nomoto, Dust in supernovae: Formation and evolution, in Cosmic Dust—Near and Far, edited by Henning, T., E. Grün, and J. Steinacker, 43 pp, Astromomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009.Google Scholar
- Krause, O., S. M. Birkmann, G. H. Rieke, D. Lemke, U. Klaas, D. C. Hines, and K. D. Gordon, No cold dust within the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, Nature, 432, 596–598, 2004.Google Scholar
- Kroupa, P., The initial mass function of stars: Evidence for uniformity in variable systems, Science, 295, 82–91, 2002.Google Scholar
- Larson, R. B., Early star formation and the evolution of the stellar initial mass function in galaxies, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 301, 569–581, 1998.Google Scholar
- Larson, R. B., B. M. Tinsley, and C. N. Caldwell, The evolution of disk galaxies and the origin of S0 galaxies, Astrophys. J., 237, 692–707, 1980.Google Scholar
- Li, A. and J. M. Greenberg, A unified model of interstellar dust, Astron. Astrophys., 323, 566–584, 1997.Google Scholar
- Lineweaver, C. H., Y. Fenner, and B. K. Gibson, The galactic habitable zone and the age distribution of complex life in the Milky Way, Science, 303, 59–62, 2004.Google Scholar
- Lisenfeld, U. and A. Ferrara, Dust-to-gas ratio and metal abundance in dwarf galaxies, Astrophys. J., 496, 145–154, 1998.Google Scholar
- Maiolino, R., R. Schneider, E. Oliva, S. Bianchi, A. Ferrara, F. Mannucci, M. Pedani, and M. Roca Sogorb, A supernova origin for dust in a high-redshift quasar, Nature, 431, 533–535, 2004.Google Scholar
- Matsuura, M., M. J. Barlow, A. A. Zijlstra et al., The global gas and dust budget of the Large Magellanic Cloud: AGB stars and supernovae, and the impact on the ISM evolution, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 396, 918– 934, 2009.Google Scholar
- Mattsson, L., Dust in the early Universe: Evidence for non-stellar dust production or observational errors?, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., arXiv:1102.0570, 2011 (in press).Google Scholar
- McKee, C, Dust destruction in the interstellar medium, in Interstellar Dust, edited by Allamandola, L. and A. G. G. M. Tielens, 14 pp, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1989.Google Scholar
- Menard, B., R. Scranton, M. Fukugita, and G. Richards, Measuring the galaxy-mass and galaxy-dust correlations through magnification and reddening, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 405, 1025–1039, 2010.Google Scholar
- Messenger, S., Identification of molecular-cloud material in interplanetary dust particles, Nature, 404, 968–971, 2000.Google Scholar
- Messenger, S., L. P. Keller, and D. S. Lauretta, Supernova olivine from cometary dust, Science, 309, 737–741, 2005.Google Scholar
- Michalowski, M. J., E. J. Murphy, J. Hjorth, D. Watson, C. Gall, and J. S. Dunlop, Dust grain growth in the interstellar medium of 5 < z < 6.5 quasars, Astron. Astrophys., 522, 15, 2010.Google Scholar
- Morgan, H. L. and M. G. Edmunds, Dust formation in early galaxies, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 343, 427−442, 2003.Google Scholar
- Morgan, H. L., L. Dunne, S. A. Eales, R. J. Ivison, and M. G. Edmunds, Cold dust in Kepler’s supernova remnant, Astrophys. J., 597, L33–L36, 2003.Google Scholar
- Mouri, H. and Y. Taniguchi, Grain survival in supernova remnants and Herbig-Haro objects, Astrophys. J., 534, L63–L66, 2000.Google Scholar
- Naab, T. and J. P. Ostriker, A simple model for the evolution of disc galaxies: the Milky Way, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 366,899–917,2006.Google Scholar
- Nath, B. B., T. Laskar, and J. M. Shull, Dust sputtering by reverse shocks in supernova remnants, Astrophys. J., 682, 1055–1064, 2008.Google Scholar
- Nomoto, K., N. Tominaga, H. Umeda, C. Kobayashi, and K. Maeda, Nucleosynthesis yields of core-collapse supernovae and hypernovae, and galactic chemical evolution, Nucl. Phys. A, 777, 424–458, 2006.Google Scholar
- Nozawa, T, T. Kozasa, H. Umeda, K. Maeda, and K. Nomoto, Dust in the early universe: Dust formation in the ejecta of population III Supernovae, Astrophys. J., 598, 785–803, 2003.Google Scholar
- Nozawa, T., T. Kozasa, and A. Habe, Dust destruction in the high-velocity shocks driven by supernovae in the early universe, Astrophys. J., 648, 435–451, 2006.Google Scholar
- Nozawa, T., T. Kozasa, A. Habe, E. Dwek, H. Umeda, N. Tominaga, K. Maeda, and K. Nomoto, Evolution of dust in primordial supernova remnants: Can dust grains formed in the ejecta survive and Be injected into the early interstellar medium?, Astrophys. J., 666, 955–966, 2007.Google Scholar
- Nozawa, T. et al., Formation and evolution of dust in Type IIb supernovae with application to the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant, Astrophys. J., 713, 356–373, 2010.Google Scholar
- Onaka, T. and F. Kamijo, Destruction of interstellar grains by sputtering, Astron. Astrophys., 64, 53–60, 1978.Google Scholar
- Pagel, B. E. J., The G-dwarf problem and radio-active Cosmochronology, in Evolutionary Phenomena in Galaxies, 23 pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 1989.Google Scholar
- Peacock, J. A., Cosmological Physics, pp. 704, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999.Google Scholar
- Pipino, A., X. L. Fan, F. Matteucci, F. Calura, L. Silva, G. Granato, and R. Maiolino, The chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies with stellar and QSO dust production, Astron. Astrophys., 525, A61, 2011.Google Scholar
- Raiteri, C. M., M. Villata, and J. F. Navarro, Simulations of Galactic chemical evolution. I. O and Fe abundances in a simple collapse model, Astron. Astrophys., 315, 105, 1996.Google Scholar
- Rho, J. et al., Freshly formed dust in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant as revealed by the Spitzer Space Telescope, Astrophys. J., 673,271–282, 2008.Google Scholar
- Rocha-Pinto, H. J., J. Scalo, W. J. Maciel, and C. Flynn, Chemical enrichment and star formation in the Milky Way disk. II. Star formation history, Astron. Astrophys., 358, 869–885, 2000a.Google Scholar
- Rocha-Pinto, H. J., W J. Maciel, J. Scalo, and C. Flynn, Chemical enrichment and star formation in the Milky Way disk. I. Sample description and chromospheric age-metallicity relation, Astron. Astrophys., 358, 850–868, 2000b.Google Scholar
- Sakon, I. et al., Properties of newly formed dust by SN 2006JC based on near- to mid-infrared observation with AKARI, Astrophys. J., 692,546– 555,2009.Google Scholar
- Salpeter, E. E., The luminosity function and stellar evolution, Astrophys. J., 121, 161–167, 1955.Google Scholar
- Sankrit, R., B. J. Williams, K. J. Borkowski, T. J. Gaetz, J. C. Raymond, W. P. Blair, P. Ghavamian, K. S. Long, and S. P. Reynolds, Dust destruction in a non-radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, Astrophys. J., 712, 1092–1099, 2010.Google Scholar
- Savage, B. D. and K. R. Sembach, Interstellar abundances from absorption-line observations with the Hubble Space Telescope, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 34, 279–330, 1996.Google Scholar
- Schmidt, M., The rate of star formation, Astrophys. J., 129,243–258,1959.Google Scholar
- Schneider, R., A. Ferrara, R. Salvaterra, K. Omukai, and V. Bromm, Low-mass relics of early star formation, Nature, 422, 869–871, 2003.Google Scholar
- Schneider, R., A. Ferrara, and R. Salvaterra, Dust formation in very massive primordial supernovae, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 351, 1379–1386, 2004.Google Scholar
- Schneider, R., K. Omukai, A. K. Inoue, and A. Ferrara, Fragmentation of star-forming clouds enriched with the first dust, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 369, 1437–1444, 2006.Google Scholar
- Sibthorpe, B., P. A. R. Ade, J. J. Bock, E. L. Chapin, M. J. Devlin, S. Dicker, M. Griffin, and J. O. Gundersen et al., AKARI and BLAST observations of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant and surrounding interstellar medium, Astrophys. J., 719, 1553–1564, 2010.Google Scholar
- Silvia, D. W, B. D. Smith, and J. M. Shull, Numerical simulations of supernova dust destruction. I. Cloud-crushing and post-processed grain sputtering, Astrophys. J., 715, 1575–1590, 2010.Google Scholar
- Songaila, A. and L. L. Cowie, Metal enrichment and ionization balance in the Lyman alpha forest at z = 3, Astron. J., 112, 335–351, 1996.Google Scholar
- Takeuchi, T. T. and H. Hirashita, Testing intermittence of the galactic star formation history along with the infall model, Astrophys. J., 540, 217– 223, 2000.Google Scholar
- Tielens, A. G. G. M., Interstellar depletions and the life cycle of interstellar dust, Astrophys. J., 499, 267–272, 1998.Google Scholar
- Tinsley, B. M., Evolution of the stars and gas in galaxies, Fundam. Cosmic Phys., 5, 287–388, 1980.Google Scholar
- Todini, P. and A. Ferrara, Dust formation in primordial Type II supernovae, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 325, 726–736, 2001.Google Scholar
- Valiante, R., R. Schneider, S. Bianchi, and A. C. Andersen, Stellar sources of dust in the high-redshift Universe, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 397, 1661–1671, 2009.Google Scholar
- van den Bergh, S., The Galaxies of the Local Group, pp. 328, Cambridge University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
- Williams, B. J., K. J. Borkowski, S. P. Reynolds, W. P. Blair, P. Ghavamian, S. P. Hendrick, K. S. Long, S. Points et al., Dust destruction in fast shocks of core-collapse supernova remnants in the large magellanic cloud, Astrophys. J., 652, L33–L36, 2006.Google Scholar
- Yamamoto, T. and H. Hasegawa, Grain formation through nucleation process in astrophysical environment, Prog. Theor. Phys., 58, 816–828, 1977.Google Scholar
- Zhukovska, S., H.-P. Gail, and M. Trieloff, Evolution of interstellar dust and stardust in the solar neighbourhood, Astron. Astrophys., 479, 453– 480, 2008.Google Scholar