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  1. The Whakaari/White Island volcano, located ~ 50 km off the east coast of the North Island in New Zealand, has experienced sequences of quiescence, unrest, magmatic and phreatic eruptions over the last decades....

    Authors: Corentin Caudron, Társilo Girona, Arthur Jolly, Bruce Christenson, Martha Kane Savage, Roberto Carniel, Thomas Lecocq, Ben Kennedy, Ivan Lokmer, Alexander Yates, Ian Hamling, Iseul Park, Geoff Kilgour and Agnès Mazot

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:195

    Content type: Frontier Letter

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  2. The Median Tectonic Line (MTL) is a thousand-kilometer-long fault that extends across southwest Japan. Near the Nyugawa region of Shikoku, the MTL comprises (i) a low-angle inactive terrane boundary fault (the MT...

    Authors: Masahiro Miyawaki and Arito Sakaguchi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:194

    Content type: Express Letter

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  3. Using numerical filtering techniques allowing us to reduce noise from sferics, we are able to clearly study a new type of differently structured very low frequency (VLF) radio waves above f = 4 kHz at the grou...

    Authors: Claudia Martinez-Calderon, Jyrki K. Manninen, Jemina T. Manninen and Tauno Turunen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:191

    Content type: Full paper

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  4. Each International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model released under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy comprises a secular variation component that describes the ...

    Authors: Alexandre Fournier, Julien Aubert, Vincent Lesur and Erwan Thébault

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:190

    Content type: Frontier Letter

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  5. Discovering such structures as the third radiation belt (or “storage ring”) has been a major observational achievement of the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes program (renamed the “Van Allen Probes” mission in...

    Authors: Daniel N. Baker

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:189

    Content type: Frontier Letter

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  6. Oxygen is a potential biosignature for terrestrial Earth-like planets. The primary source of oxygen on Earth is oxygenic photosynthesis, which may be limited by the supply of riverine phosphorus. Therefore, ph...

    Authors: Yasuto Watanabe and Eiichi Tajika

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:188

    Content type: Express Letter

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  7. Low-frequency tremors have been widely detected in many tectonic zones, and are often located adjacent to megathrust zones, indicating that their spatiotemporal evolution provides important insights into megat...

    Authors: Hidenobu Takahashi, Kazuya Tateiwa, Keisuke Yano and Masayuki Kano

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:186

    Content type: Express Letter

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  8. Using meteor radar, radiosonde observations and MERRA-2 reanalysis data from 12 August to 31 October 2006, we report a dynamical coupling from the tropical lower atmosphere to the mesosphere and lower thermosp...

    Authors: Hao Cheng, Kaiming Huang, Alan Z. Liu, Shaodong Zhang, Chunming Huang and Yun Gong

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:183

    Content type: Full paper

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  9. Pliocene volcanic rocks from south-east Austria were paleomagnetically investigated. Samples were taken from 28 sites located on eight different volcanoes. Rock magnetic investigations revealed that magnetic c...

    Authors: Elisabeth Schnepp, Patrick Arneitz, Morgan Ganerød, Robert Scholger, Ingomar Fritz, Ramon Egli and Roman Leonhardt

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:182

    Content type: Full paper

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  10. Along the Nankai Trough subduction zone, southwest Japan, short-term slow slip events (SSEs) are commonly detected in strain and tilt records. These observational data have been used in rectangular fault model...

    Authors: Takahiro Tsuyuki, Akio Kobayashi, Reiko Kai, Takeshi Kimura and Satoshi Itaba

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:181

    Content type: Full paper

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  11. A volcanic eruption transmits both seismic and infrasound signals. The seismo-acoustic power ratio is widely used to investigate the eruption behaviors and the source dynamics. It is often the case that seismi...

    Authors: Mie Ichihara, Kazuya Yamakawa and Dan Muramatsu

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:180

    Content type: Express Letter

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  12. Volcano-hydrothermal systems are governed by complex interactions between fluid transport, and geochemical and mechanical processes. Evidence of this close interplay has been testified by distinct spatial and ...

    Authors: Santina Chiara Stissi, Rosalba Napoli, Gilda Currenti, Andrey Afanasyev and Giordano Montegrossi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:179

    Content type: Full paper

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  13. This study aims to synthesize seismic observations with gravity and magnetic data and to suggest a new scenario on the development of the Harrat Lunayyir (HL) tectonic system on the eastern Red Sea coastline, ...

    Authors: Ali K. Abdelfattah, Chokri Jallouli, Mohamed Fnais, Saleh Qaysi, Hassan Alzahrani and Saad Mogren

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:178

    Content type: Full paper

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  14. On 10 October 2011, a submarine eruption occurred in El Hierro island. Thus, the eruptive process in the Canary islands was reactivated after 40 years of inactivity. The main objective of this work is to evalu...

    Authors: Sonia Pérez-Plaza, Manuel Berrocoso, Belén Rosado, Gonçalo Prates and Fernando Fernández-Palacín

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:177

    Content type: Full paper

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  15. We investigated changes in the b value of the Gutenberg–Richter’s law in and around the focal areas of earthquakes on March 20 and on May 1, 2021, with magnitude (M) 6.9 and 6.8, respectively, which occurred off ...

    Authors: K. Z. Nanjo and A. Yoshida

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:176

    Content type: Express Letter

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  16. Following the observed pattern of a new geomagnetic jerk every 3–4 years, certain predictions suggested that a new event should occur around 2020 after the one observed around 2017.5. In this work, we explore ...

    Authors: F. Javier Pavón-Carrasco, Santiago Marsal, Saioa A. Campuzano and J. Miquel Torta

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:175

    Content type: Full paper

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  17. The gravity field is one of the Earth’s basic physical fields. The geoid can be calculated and the tectonic activity underground can be inversed by gravity anomaly. With the development of various ship-borne g...

    Authors: Zhimin Shi, Junjian Lang, Xinghui Liang, Zhibo Zhou, Aizhi Guo and Lintao Liu

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:174

    Content type: Full paper

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  18. Here we investigate the influence of the lithology and thermal state of the upper crust on earthquake distributions beneath the Wakayama region, southern Honshu, Japan, to better understand the influence of cr...

    Authors: Sumire Maeda, Shinji Toda, Toru Matsuzawa, Makoto Otsubo and Takumi Matsumoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:173

    Content type: Express Letter

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  19. Subvolcanic hydrothermal systems can lead to hydrothermal eruptions as well as unrest phenomena without an eruptive event. Historical eruptions and recent unrest events, including ground inflation, demagnetiza...

    Authors: Ryo Tanaka, Yusuke Yamaya, Makoto Tamura, Takeshi Hashimoto, Noritoshi Okazaki, Ryo Takahashi and Toru Mogi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:172

    Content type: Express Letter

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  20. The evolution history of the Sea of Japan back-arc basin remains under debate, involving the opening of sub-basins such as the Japan and Yamato Basins. Detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure will pro...

    Authors: Takeshi Akuhara, Kazuo Nakahigashi, Masanao Shinohara, Tomoaki Yamada, Hajime Shiobara, Yusuke Yamashita, Kimihiro Mochizuki and Kenji Uehira

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:171

    Content type: Full paper

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  21. Lithospheric deformation is a fundamental process in plate tectonics. It is, therefore, critical to determine how the lithosphere responds to geological loads to better understand tectonic processes. The litho...

    Authors: Ming-Ju Xu, Zhao-Cai Wu, Fei Ji, Ai-Guo Ruan, Chun-Feng Li and Jin-Yao Gao

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:170

    Content type: Full paper

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  22. In this paper, we carried out a series of linear analyses on the onset of thermal convection of highly compressible fluids whose physical properties strongly vary in space in convecting vessels either of a thr...

    Authors: Masanori Kameyama

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:167

    Content type: Full paper

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  23. Ringwoodite and wadsleyite are the high-pressure polymorphs of olivine, which are common in shocked meteorites. They are the major constituent minerals in the terrestrial mantle. NWA 8705, an olivine-phyric sh...

    Authors: Ting Zhang, Sen Hu, Nian Wang, Yangting Lin, Lixin Gu, Xu Tang, Xinyu Zou and Mingming Zhang

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:165

    Content type: Full paper

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  24. Newly analysed titanomagnetite–ilmenite (Tim–Ilm) intergrowths from Martian nakhlite meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 5790 yielded crystallisation temperature up to 1032 °C and oxygen fugacity (fO2) up to ΔQFM + ...

    Authors: Zilong Wang, Wei Tian and Yankun Di

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:164

    Content type: Express Letter

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  25. Large-amplitude geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) are the natural consequences of the solar–terrestrial connection triggered by solar eruptions. The threat of severe damage of power grids due to the GICs...

    Authors: Yusuke Ebihara, Shinichi Watari and Sandeep Kumar

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:163

    Content type: Technical report

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  26. Investigations of the co- and postseismic processes of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake provide essential information on the seismic cycle in the Japan Trench. Although almost all of the source region lies benea...

    Authors: Shun-ichi Watanabe, Tadashi Ishikawa, Yuto Nakamura and Yusuke Yokota

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:162

    Content type: Express Letter

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  27. Reconstructing the history of Philippine Sea (PHS) plate motion is important for better understanding of the tectonics of the surrounding plates. It is generally considered that the PHS plate migrated northwar...

    Authors: Toshitsugu Yamazaki, Shun Chiyonobu, Osamu Ishizuka, Fumisato Tajima, Naoki Uto and Shinichi Takagawa

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:161

    Content type: Express Letter

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  28. Although solar activity may significantly impact the global environment and socioeconomic systems, the mechanisms for solar eruptions and the subsequent processes have not yet been fully understood. Thus, mode...

    Authors: Kanya Kusano, Kiyoshi Ichimoto, Mamoru Ishii, Yoshizumi Miyoshi, Shigeo Yoden, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Ayumi Asai, Yusuke Ebihara, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Tada-Nori Goto, Yoichiro Hanaoka, Hisashi Hayakawa, Keisuke Hosokawa, Hideyuki Hotta, Kornyanat Hozumi, Shinsuke Imada…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:159

    Content type: Frontier Letter

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  29. The visualization of computer simulations is currently undergoing a transition from post-hoc to in-situ visualization in which visualization processes are applied, while the simulation is running. The selectio...

    Authors: Nobuaki Ohno and Akira Kageyama

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:158

    Content type: Technical report

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  30. We estimate the mass and energy budgets for the 2018 phreatic eruption of Mt. Motoshirane on Kusatsu–Shirane volcano, Japan, based on data obtained from a network of eight tiltmeters and weather radar echoes. ...

    Authors: Akihiko Terada, Wataru Kanda, Yasuo Ogawa, Taishi Yamada, Mare Yamamoto, Takahiro Ohkura, Hiroshi Aoyama, Tomoki Tsutsui and Shin’ya Onizawa

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:157

    Content type: Full paper

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:184

  31. A volcanic ash eruption began on March 1, 2018, and a lava flow was observed on March 6 at Shinmoedake volcano in the Kirishima Volcano Group. The small ash eruptions continued until June 27, 2018. The amounts...

    Authors: Yasuhisa Tajima

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:156

    Content type: Express Letter

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  32. Natural springs containing volcanic and magmatic components occur in association with these activities. However, features of deeply originated fluids and solutes were less documented from fields, where active ...

    Authors: Takahiro Hosono and Chikashige Yamanaka

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:155

    Content type: Full paper

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  33. We conducted magnetotelluric measurements to investigate a large serpentinite complex in the northern Kamuikotan Zone that intruded a Cretaceous–Paleocene forearc sedimentary sequence. The resistivity model we...

    Authors: Hiroshi Ichihara, Toru Mogi, Toshihiro Uchida, Hideyuki Satoh, Yusuke Yamaya, Masakazu Fujii, Shusaku Yamazaki, Kenji Okazaki and Noriko Tada

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:154

    Content type: Express Letter

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  34. Present day crustal displacement rates can be accurately observed at stations of global navigation satellite system (GNSS), and crustal deformation has been investigated by estimating strain-rate fields from d...

    Authors: Tomohisa Okazaki, Yukitoshi Fukahata and Takuya Nishimura

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:153

    Content type: Full paper

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  35. We analyze temporal variations in the travel times of both P and S waves (Vp and Vs) for 14 months at Toyohashi (central Japan) with a continuously operating vibration source that could efficiently produce bot...

    Authors: Rina Suzuki, Koshun Yamaoka, Shuhei Tsuji and Toshiki Watanabe

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:152

    Content type: Full paper

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  36. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imager, EUVI-B, on board the International Space Station (ISS) under the International Space Station–ionosphere-mesosphere-atmosphere plasmasphere cameras (ISS-IMAP) mission was o...

    Authors: Shin’ya Nakano, Yuta Hozumi, Akinori Saito, Ichiro Yoshikawa, Atsushi Yamazaki, Kazuo Yoshioka and Go Murakami

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:151

    Content type: Full paper

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  37. An electrical resistivity model beneath Azumayama Volcano, NE Japan, is explored using magnetotelluric method to probe the magma/hydrothermal fluid distribution. Azumayama is one of the most concerning active ...

    Authors: Masahiro Ichiki, Toshiki Kaida, Takashi Nakayama, Satoshi Miura, Mare Yamamoto, Yuichi Morita and Makoto Uyeshima

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:150

    Content type: Full paper

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  38. Polar motion is the movement of the Earth's rotational axis relative to its crust, reflecting the influence of the material exchange and mass redistribution of each layer of the Earth on the Earth's rotation a...

    Authors: Xin Jin, Xin Liu, Jinyun Guo and Yi Shen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:147

    Content type: Full paper

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  39. The east–west component of magnetic field variation (∆D-component) at Davao station (Philippines, geomagnetic latitude: – 2.22˚N) are used to investigate the characteristics of the long-term Inter-Hemispheric Fie...

    Authors: Manjula Ranasinghe, Akiko Fujimoto, Akimasa Yoshikawa and Chandana Jayaratne

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:146

    Content type: Express Letter

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