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  1. Poloidal–toroidal magnetic field decomposition is a useful application of the Mie representation and the decomposition method enables us to determine the current density observationally and unambiguously in th...

    Authors: S. Toepfer, Y. Narita, W. Exner, D. Heyner, P. Kolhey, K. -H. Glassmeier and U. Motschmann
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:204
  2. Estimation of the traditional transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) impedances of the magnetotelluric tensor for two-dimensional structures can be decoupled from the estimation of the strike di...

    Authors: Rocío F. Arellano-Castro and Enrique Gómez-Treviño
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:203
  3. The ionosphere is one of the important sources for magnetospheric plasma, particularly for heavy ions with low charge states. We investigate the effect of solar illumination on the number flux of ion outflow u...

    Authors: Naritoshi Kitamura, Kanako Seki, Kunihiro Keika, Yukitoshi Nishimura, Tomoaki Hori, Masafumi Hirahara, Eric J. Lund, Lynn M. Kistler and Robert J. Strangeway
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:202
  4. Thermospheric mass density values around the 400-km altitude in the cusp can be significantly enhanced as compared to regions around the cusp. To gain insights into the extent to which the magnitude of the cus...

    Authors: Tomokazu Oigawa, Hiroyuki Shinagawa and Satoshi Taguchi
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:201
  5. The Shanxi Rift located in the central part of the North China Craton (NCC) as a boundary between the Ordos block and the Huabei basin. The Shanxi graben system is a Cenozoic rift and originated from back-arc ...

    Authors: Yifang Chen, Jiuhui Chen, ShunCheng Li, Zhanyang Yu, Xuzhou Liu and Xuzhang Shen
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:200
  6. The southern part of the Ryukyu subduction zone has recorded tsunami events with a recurrence interval of several hundred years. Although their source is controversial, one model suggests that the last 1771 Ya...

    Authors: Masayuki Kano, Aoi Ikeuchi, Takuya Nishimura, Shin’ichi Miyazaki and Takeshi Matsushima
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:199
  7. We describe the way a global model of the geomagnetic field has been built using vector field data acquired by the absolute scalar magnetometers (ASM) running in vector mode on board the Alpha and Bravo satell...

    Authors: Pierre Vigneron, Gauthier Hulot, Jean-Michel Léger and Thomas Jager
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:197
  8. The study of slow earthquake activity, which occurs in the shallow and deep sides of seismogenic zone, is crucial for understanding subduction zones, including variations in frictional properties with depth an...

    Authors: Yusuke Yamashita, Masanao Shinohara and Tomoaki Yamada
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:196
  9. The Whakaari/White Island volcano, located ~ 50 km off the east coast of the North Island in New Zealand, has experienced sequences of quiescence, unrest, magmatic and phreatic eruptions over the last decades....

    Authors: Corentin Caudron, Társilo Girona, Arthur Jolly, Bruce Christenson, Martha Kane Savage, Roberto Carniel, Thomas Lecocq, Ben Kennedy, Ivan Lokmer, Alexander Yates, Ian Hamling, Iseul Park, Geoff Kilgour and Agnès Mazot
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:195
  10. The Median Tectonic Line (MTL) is a thousand-kilometer-long fault that extends across southwest Japan. Near the Nyugawa region of Shikoku, the MTL comprises (i) a low-angle inactive terrane boundary fault (the MT...

    Authors: Masahiro Miyawaki and Arito Sakaguchi
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:194
  11. Using numerical filtering techniques allowing us to reduce noise from sferics, we are able to clearly study a new type of differently structured very low frequency (VLF) radio waves above f = 4 kHz at the grou...

    Authors: Claudia Martinez-Calderon, Jyrki K. Manninen, Jemina T. Manninen and Tauno Turunen
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:191
  12. Each International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model released under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy comprises a secular variation component that describes the ...

    Authors: Alexandre Fournier, Julien Aubert, Vincent Lesur and Erwan Thébault
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:190
  13. Discovering such structures as the third radiation belt (or “storage ring”) has been a major observational achievement of the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes program (renamed the “Van Allen Probes” mission in...

    Authors: Daniel N. Baker
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:189
  14. Oxygen is a potential biosignature for terrestrial Earth-like planets. The primary source of oxygen on Earth is oxygenic photosynthesis, which may be limited by the supply of riverine phosphorus. Therefore, ph...

    Authors: Yasuto Watanabe and Eiichi Tajika
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:188
  15. Low-frequency tremors have been widely detected in many tectonic zones, and are often located adjacent to megathrust zones, indicating that their spatiotemporal evolution provides important insights into megat...

    Authors: Hidenobu Takahashi, Kazuya Tateiwa, Keisuke Yano and Masayuki Kano
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:186
  16. Using meteor radar, radiosonde observations and MERRA-2 reanalysis data from 12 August to 31 October 2006, we report a dynamical coupling from the tropical lower atmosphere to the mesosphere and lower thermosp...

    Authors: Hao Cheng, Kaiming Huang, Alan Z. Liu, Shaodong Zhang, Chunming Huang and Yun Gong
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:183
  17. Pliocene volcanic rocks from south-east Austria were paleomagnetically investigated. Samples were taken from 28 sites located on eight different volcanoes. Rock magnetic investigations revealed that magnetic c...

    Authors: Elisabeth Schnepp, Patrick Arneitz, Morgan Ganerød, Robert Scholger, Ingomar Fritz, Ramon Egli and Roman Leonhardt
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:182
  18. Along the Nankai Trough subduction zone, southwest Japan, short-term slow slip events (SSEs) are commonly detected in strain and tilt records. These observational data have been used in rectangular fault model...

    Authors: Takahiro Tsuyuki, Akio Kobayashi, Reiko Kai, Takeshi Kimura and Satoshi Itaba
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:181
  19. A volcanic eruption transmits both seismic and infrasound signals. The seismo-acoustic power ratio is widely used to investigate the eruption behaviors and the source dynamics. It is often the case that seismi...

    Authors: Mie Ichihara, Kazuya Yamakawa and Dan Muramatsu
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:180
  20. Volcano-hydrothermal systems are governed by complex interactions between fluid transport, and geochemical and mechanical processes. Evidence of this close interplay has been testified by distinct spatial and ...

    Authors: Santina Chiara Stissi, Rosalba Napoli, Gilda Currenti, Andrey Afanasyev and Giordano Montegrossi
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:179
  21. This study aims to synthesize seismic observations with gravity and magnetic data and to suggest a new scenario on the development of the Harrat Lunayyir (HL) tectonic system on the eastern Red Sea coastline, ...

    Authors: Ali K. Abdelfattah, Chokri Jallouli, Mohamed Fnais, Saleh Qaysi, Hassan Alzahrani and Saad Mogren
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:178
  22. On 10 October 2011, a submarine eruption occurred in El Hierro island. Thus, the eruptive process in the Canary islands was reactivated after 40 years of inactivity. The main objective of this work is to evalu...

    Authors: Sonia Pérez-Plaza, Manuel Berrocoso, Belén Rosado, Gonçalo Prates and Fernando Fernández-Palacín
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:177
  23. We investigated changes in the b value of the Gutenberg–Richter’s law in and around the focal areas of earthquakes on March 20 and on May 1, 2021, with magnitude (M) 6.9 and 6.8, respectively, which occurred off ...

    Authors: K. Z. Nanjo and A. Yoshida
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:176
  24. Following the observed pattern of a new geomagnetic jerk every 3–4 years, certain predictions suggested that a new event should occur around 2020 after the one observed around 2017.5. In this work, we explore ...

    Authors: F. Javier Pavón-Carrasco, Santiago Marsal, Saioa A. Campuzano and J. Miquel Torta
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:175
  25. The gravity field is one of the Earth’s basic physical fields. The geoid can be calculated and the tectonic activity underground can be inversed by gravity anomaly. With the development of various ship-borne g...

    Authors: Zhimin Shi, Junjian Lang, Xinghui Liang, Zhibo Zhou, Aizhi Guo and Lintao Liu
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:174
  26. Here we investigate the influence of the lithology and thermal state of the upper crust on earthquake distributions beneath the Wakayama region, southern Honshu, Japan, to better understand the influence of cr...

    Authors: Sumire Maeda, Shinji Toda, Toru Matsuzawa, Makoto Otsubo and Takumi Matsumoto
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:173

    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:205

  27. Subvolcanic hydrothermal systems can lead to hydrothermal eruptions as well as unrest phenomena without an eruptive event. Historical eruptions and recent unrest events, including ground inflation, demagnetiza...

    Authors: Ryo Tanaka, Yusuke Yamaya, Makoto Tamura, Takeshi Hashimoto, Noritoshi Okazaki, Ryo Takahashi and Toru Mogi
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:172
  28. The evolution history of the Sea of Japan back-arc basin remains under debate, involving the opening of sub-basins such as the Japan and Yamato Basins. Detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure will pro...

    Authors: Takeshi Akuhara, Kazuo Nakahigashi, Masanao Shinohara, Tomoaki Yamada, Hajime Shiobara, Yusuke Yamashita, Kimihiro Mochizuki and Kenji Uehira
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:171
  29. Lithospheric deformation is a fundamental process in plate tectonics. It is, therefore, critical to determine how the lithosphere responds to geological loads to better understand tectonic processes. The litho...

    Authors: Ming-Ju Xu, Zhao-Cai Wu, Fei Ji, Ai-Guo Ruan, Chun-Feng Li and Jin-Yao Gao
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:170
  30. In this paper, we carried out a series of linear analyses on the onset of thermal convection of highly compressible fluids whose physical properties strongly vary in space in convecting vessels either of a thr...

    Authors: Masanori Kameyama
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:167
  31. Ringwoodite and wadsleyite are the high-pressure polymorphs of olivine, which are common in shocked meteorites. They are the major constituent minerals in the terrestrial mantle. NWA 8705, an olivine-phyric sh...

    Authors: Ting Zhang, Sen Hu, Nian Wang, Yangting Lin, Lixin Gu, Xu Tang, Xinyu Zou and Mingming Zhang
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:165
  32. Newly analysed titanomagnetite–ilmenite (Tim–Ilm) intergrowths from Martian nakhlite meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 5790 yielded crystallisation temperature up to 1032 °C and oxygen fugacity (fO2) up to ΔQFM + ...

    Authors: Zilong Wang, Wei Tian and Yankun Di
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:164
  33. Large-amplitude geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) are the natural consequences of the solar–terrestrial connection triggered by solar eruptions. The threat of severe damage of power grids due to the GICs...

    Authors: Yusuke Ebihara, Shinichi Watari and Sandeep Kumar
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:163
  34. Investigations of the co- and postseismic processes of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake provide essential information on the seismic cycle in the Japan Trench. Although almost all of the source region lies benea...

    Authors: Shun-ichi Watanabe, Tadashi Ishikawa, Yuto Nakamura and Yusuke Yokota
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:162
  35. Reconstructing the history of Philippine Sea (PHS) plate motion is important for better understanding of the tectonics of the surrounding plates. It is generally considered that the PHS plate migrated northwar...

    Authors: Toshitsugu Yamazaki, Shun Chiyonobu, Osamu Ishizuka, Fumisato Tajima, Naoki Uto and Shinichi Takagawa
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:161
  36. Although solar activity may significantly impact the global environment and socioeconomic systems, the mechanisms for solar eruptions and the subsequent processes have not yet been fully understood. Thus, mode...

    Authors: Kanya Kusano, Kiyoshi Ichimoto, Mamoru Ishii, Yoshizumi Miyoshi, Shigeo Yoden, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Ayumi Asai, Yusuke Ebihara, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Tada-Nori Goto, Yoichiro Hanaoka, Hisashi Hayakawa, Keisuke Hosokawa, Hideyuki Hotta, Kornyanat Hozumi, Shinsuke Imada…
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:159
  37. The visualization of computer simulations is currently undergoing a transition from post-hoc to in-situ visualization in which visualization processes are applied, while the simulation is running. The selectio...

    Authors: Nobuaki Ohno and Akira Kageyama
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:158
  38. We estimate the mass and energy budgets for the 2018 phreatic eruption of Mt. Motoshirane on Kusatsu–Shirane volcano, Japan, based on data obtained from a network of eight tiltmeters and weather radar echoes. ...

    Authors: Akihiko Terada, Wataru Kanda, Yasuo Ogawa, Taishi Yamada, Mare Yamamoto, Takahiro Ohkura, Hiroshi Aoyama, Tomoki Tsutsui and Shin’ya Onizawa
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:157

    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:184

  39. A volcanic ash eruption began on March 1, 2018, and a lava flow was observed on March 6 at Shinmoedake volcano in the Kirishima Volcano Group. The small ash eruptions continued until June 27, 2018. The amounts...

    Authors: Yasuhisa Tajima
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:156
  40. We conducted magnetotelluric measurements to investigate a large serpentinite complex in the northern Kamuikotan Zone that intruded a Cretaceous–Paleocene forearc sedimentary sequence. The resistivity model we...

    Authors: Hiroshi Ichihara, Toru Mogi, Toshihiro Uchida, Hideyuki Satoh, Yusuke Yamaya, Masakazu Fujii, Shusaku Yamazaki, Kenji Okazaki and Noriko Tada
    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:154

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