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Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction: Toward the Synergy of Science and Forecasting Operation of Space Weather and Space Climate

Although solar activity may significantly influence the global environment as well as socio-economic systems, the mechanisms for solar eruptions and the subsequent processes have not yet been fully understood. Thus, modern society is at a risk from severe space weather disturbances. The prediction is the only way to mitigate the impact, and also it plays an important role to improve our understanding of solar-terrestrial environment.


Lead Guest Editor
Kanya Kusano, Nagoya University, Japan

Guest Editors
Mamoru Ishii , NICT, Japan 
Tomas Berger ,  Colorado University, USA
Yoshizumi Miyoshi, Nagoya University, Japan
Shigeo Yoden, Kyoto University, Japan
Huixin Liu, Kyushu University, Japan
Terry Onsager, NOAA, USA
Kiyoshi Ichimoto, Kyoto University, Japan



  1. Although solar activity may significantly impact the global environment and socioeconomic systems, the mechanisms for solar eruptions and the subsequent processes have not yet been fully understood. Thus, mode...

    Authors: Kanya Kusano, Kiyoshi Ichimoto, Mamoru Ishii, Yoshizumi Miyoshi, Shigeo Yoden, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Ayumi Asai, Yusuke Ebihara, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Tada-Nori Goto, Yoichiro Hanaoka, Hisashi Hayakawa, Keisuke Hosokawa, Hideyuki Hotta, Kornyanat Hozumi, Shinsuke Imada…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:159

    Content type: Frontier Letter

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  2. We surveyed the relationship between the scale of space weather events and their occurrence rate in Japan, and we discussed the social impact of these phenomena during the Project for Solar–Terrestrial Environ...

    Authors: Mamoru Ishii, Daikou Shiota, Chihiro Tao, Yusuke Ebihara, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Takako Ishii, Kiyoshi Ichimoto, Ryuho Kataoka, Kiyokazu Koga, Yuki Kubo, Kanya Kusano, Yoshizumi Miyoshi, Tsutomu Nagatsuma, Aoi Nakamizo, Masao Nakamura, Michi Nishioka…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:108

    Content type: Full paper

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  3. We attempted to reproduce the total electron content (TEC) variation in the Earth's atmosphere from the temporal variation of the solar flare spectrum of the X9.3 flare on September 6, 2017. The flare spectrum...

    Authors: Kyoko Watanabe, Hidekatsu Jin, Shohei Nishimoto, Shinsuke Imada, Toshiki Kawai, Tomoko Kawate, Yuichi Otsuka, Atsuki Shinbori, Takuya Tsugawa and Michi Nishioka

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:96

    Content type: Full paper

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  4. Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in a quasi-meridional power transmission line on the Kola Peninsula are analyzed during the intervals of Pc5/Pi3 (frequency range from 1.5 to 5 mHz) pulsations recorded ...

    Authors: Nadezda V Yagova, Vyacheslav A Pilipenko, Yaroslav A Sakharov and Vasily N Selivanov

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:88

    Content type: Full paper

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  5. X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions from solar flares rapidly change the physical composition of the Earth’s thermosphere and ionosphere, thereby causing space weather phenomena such as communicatio...

    Authors: Shohei Nishimoto, Kyoko Watanabe, Toshiki Kawai, Shinsuke Imada and Tomoko Kawate

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:79

    Content type: Full paper

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  6. We developed an operational solar flare prediction model using deep neural networks, named Deep Flare Net (DeFN). DeFN can issue probabilistic forecasts of solar flares in two categories, such as ≥ M-class and...

    Authors: Naoto Nishizuka, Yûki Kubo, Komei Sugiura, Mitsue Den and Mamoru Ishii

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:64

    Content type: Full paper

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  7. It is widely recognised that filament disappearances or eruptions are frequently associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Since CMEs are a major source of disturbances of the space environment surroundin...

    Authors: Daikichi Seki, Kenichi Otsuji, Takako T. Ishii, Ayumi Asai and Kiyoshi Ichimoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:58

    Content type: Full paper

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  8. A solar energetic particle (SEP) event generates a shower of secondary generated particles in the Earth’s atmosphere down to lower altitudes to cause an atmospheric radiation storm (ARS). The high-energy secon...

    Authors: Susumu Saito, Navinda Kithmal Wickramasinghe, Tatsuhiko Sato and Daikou Shiota

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:57

    Content type: Full paper

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  9. Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) is one of the key parameters for users of radio-based systems, such as the Global Navigation Satellite System, high-frequency communication systems, and space-based rem...

    Authors: Michi Nishioka, Susumu Saito, Chihiro Tao, Daikou Shiota, Takuya Tsugawa and Mamoru Ishii

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:52

    Content type: Full paper

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  10. The total electron content (TEC) data derived from the GAIA (Ground-to-topside model of Atmosphere Ionosphere for Aeronomy) is used to study the seasonal and longitudinal variation of occurrence of medium-scal...

    Authors: Mani Sivakandan, Yuichi Otsuka, Priyanka Ghosh, Hiroyuki Shinagawa, Atsuki Shinbori and Yasunobu Miyoshi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:35

    Content type: Full paper

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  11. In gradual Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events, shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) play a major role in accelerating particles, and the energetic particle flux enhances substantially when th...

    Authors: Mitsuo Oka, Takahiro Obara, Nariaki V. Nitta, Seiji Yashiro, Daikou Shiota and Kiyoshi Ichimoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:31

    Content type: Express Letter

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  12. A sporadic E layer has significant influence on radio communications and broadcasting, and predicting the occurrence of sporadic E layers is one of the most important issues in space weather forecast. While sp...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Shinagawa, Chihiro Tao, Hidekatsu Jin, Yasunobu Miyoshi and Hitoshi Fujiwara

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:28

    Content type: Full paper

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  13. Plasma variations in the geospace environment driven by solar wind–magnetosphere interactions are one of the major causes of satellite anomaly. To mitigate the effect of satellite anomaly, the risk of space we...

    Authors: Tsutomu Nagatsuma, Aoi Nakamizo, Yasubumi Kubota, Masao Nakamura, Kiyokazu Koga, Yoshizumi Miyoshi and Haruhisa Matsumoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:26

    Content type: Full paper

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  14. In order to reveal solar activity dependence of the medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) at midlatitudes, total electron content (TEC) data obtained from a Global Positioning System (GPS) r...

    Authors: Yuichi Otsuka, Atsuki Shinbori, Takuya Tsugawa and Michi Nishioka

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:22

    Content type: Full paper

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  15. Using the HF Doppler sounders at middle and low latitudes (Prague, Czech Republic; Tucuman, Argentina; Zhongli, Republic of China, and Sugadaira, Japan), we observed the electric fields of the geomagnetic sudd...

    Authors: Takashi Kikuchi, Jaroslav Chum, Ichiro Tomizawa, Kumiko K. Hashimoto, Keisuke Hosokawa, Yusuke Ebihara, Kornyanat Hozumi and Pornchai Supnithi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:10

    Content type: Full paper

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  16. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) cause various disturbances of the space environment; therefore, forecasting their arrival time is very important. However, forecasting accuracy is hindered by limited CME observat...

    Authors: Kazumasa Iwai, Daikou Shiota, Munetoshi Tokumaru, Ken’ichi Fujiki, Mitsue Den and Yûki Kubo

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:9

    Content type: Express Letter

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  17. We have performed a statistical data analysis on relationship between simultaneous Na density data and cosmic noise absorption (CNA) data, which is an indicator for energetic particle precipitation, obtained a...

    Authors: T. T. Tsuda, Y. -M. Tanaka, R. Tozu, K. Takizawa, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. D. Kawahara and T. Nakamura

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:7

    Content type: Full paper

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  18. We studied temporal variation of the differential rotation and poleward meridional circulation during solar cycle 24 using the magnetic element feature tracking technique. We used line-of-sight magnetograms ob...

    Authors: Shinsuke Imada, Kengo Matoba, Masashi Fujiyama and Haruhisa Iijima

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:182

    Content type: Full paper

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  19. Polarimetry is a crucial method to investigate solar magnetic fields. From the viewpoint of space weather, the magnetic field in solar filaments, which occasionally erupt and develop into interplanetary flux r...

    Authors: Yoichiro Hanaoka, Yukio Katsukawa, Satoshi Morita, Yukiko Kamata and Noriyoshi Ishizuka

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:181

    Content type: Technical report

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  20. Upper atmospheric conditions are crucial for the safe operation of spacecraft orbiting near Earth and for communication and positioning systems using radio signals. To understand and predict the upper atmosphe...

    Authors: Chihiro Tao, Hidekatsu Jin, Yasunobu Miyoshi, Hiroyuki Shinagawa, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Michi Nishioka and Mamoru Ishii

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:178

    Content type: Full paper

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  21. Solar flares trigger an increase in plasma density in the ionosphere including the D region, and cause the absorption of radio waves, especially in high-frequency (HF) ranges, called short-wave fadeout (SWF). ...

    Authors: Chihiro Tao, Michi Nishioka, Susumu Saito, Daikou Shiota, Kyoko Watanabe, Naoto Nishizuka, Takuya Tsugawa and Mamoru Ishii

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:173

    Content type: Full paper

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  22. Statistical distributions are investigated for magnetic storms, sudden commencements (SCs), and substorms to identify the possible amplitude of the one in 100-year and 1000-year events from a limited data set ...

    Authors: Ryuho Kataoka

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:124

    Content type: Full paper

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  23. The importance of the investigation of magnetic superstorms is not limited to academic interest, because these superstorms can cause catastrophic impact on the modern civilisation due to our increasing depende...

    Authors: Hisashi Hayakawa, José R. Ribeiro, Yusuke Ebihara, Ana P. Correia and Mitsuru Sôma

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:122

    Content type: Express Letter

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  24. Using a whole atmosphere–ionosphere coupled model GAIA (ground-to-topside model of atmosphere and ionosphere), we have investigated which parameters mainly control day-to-day variation of vertical plasma drift...

    Authors: Priyanka Ghosh, Yuichi Otsuka, Sivakandan Mani and Hiroyuki Shinagawa

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:93

    Content type: Express Letter

    Published on:

  25. We introduce a network observation of anomalous long-distance propagation of aeronautical navigation (NAV) very high-frequency (VHF) radio waves due to sporadic E layer (Es). The system has been operative sinc...

    Authors: Keisuke Hosokawa, Jun Sakai, Ichiro Tomizawa, Susumu Saito, Takuya Tsugawa, Michi Nishioka and Mamoru Ishii

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:88

    Content type: Technical report

    Published on:

  26. Being footprints of major magnetic storms and hence major solar eruptions, mid- to low-latitude aurorae have been one of the pathways to understand solar–terrestrial environments. However, it has been reported...

    Authors: Denny M. Oliveira, Hisashi Hayakawa, Ankush Bhaskar, Eftyhia Zesta and Geeta Vichare

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2020 72:82

    Content type: Express Letter

    Published on:

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