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  1. Content type: Full paper

    Spread-F is known as the electron density inhomogeneous structures in F layer of ionosphere and can usually be classified as frequency spread-F (FSF) and range spread-F (RSF). Few studies have reported on the ...

    Authors: Ning Wang, Lixin Guo, Zonghua Ding, Zhenwei Zhao, Zhengwen Xu, Tong Xu and Yanli Hu

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:47

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  2. Content type: Correction

    Portions of this letter come from the content published in the paper by Ware et al. [1].

    Authors: Randolph H. Ware, David W. Fulker, Seth A. Stein, David N. Anderson, Susan K. Avery, Richard D. Clark, Kelvin K. Droegemeier, Joachim P. Kuettner, J. Minster and Soroosh Sorooshian

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:46

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    The original article was published in Earth, Planets and Space 2014 52:BF03352303

  3. Content type: Correction

    In the original publication of this article Sun et al. (2019), “El” is missing at the beginning of the title.

    Authors: Yang‑Yi Sun, Huixin Liu, Yasunobu Miyoshi, Loren C. Chang and Libo Liu

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:45

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    The original article was published in Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:35

  4. Content type: Frontier letter

    The 2014–2015 eruption of the Nakadake first crater at Aso Volcano in southwestern Japan was characterized by continuous ash emissions and intermittent strombolian eruptions. In this paper, we present the dist...

    Authors: Yasuo Miyabuchi and Chihoko Hara

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:44

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  5. Content type: Full paper

    A moment magnitude Mw9.0 earthquake hit northeastern Japan at 14:46:18 (Japan Standard Time), March 11, 2011. We have obtained 1 s precise point positioning solutions for 1198 GEONET stations. Although GPS pos...

    Authors: Peiliang Xu, Yuanming Shu, Jingnan Liu, Takuya Nishimura, Yun Shi and Jeffrey T. Freymueller

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:43

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  6. Content type: Full paper

    The September 6–10, 2017 two-step magnetic storm was caused by an X9 solar flare followed by a CME. The SSC that occurred at 23:43 UT on day 06 when Sym-H reached about 50 nT, was due to a sudden increase in s...

    Authors: Eurico R. de Paula, Cesar B. A. de Oliveira, Ronald G. Caton, Patricia M. Negreti, Inez S. Batista, André R. F. Martinon, Acácio C. Neto, Mangalathayil A. Abdu, João F. G. Monico, Jonas Sousasantos and Alison O. Moraes

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:42

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  7. Content type: Full paper

    We develop a modified envelope correlation method for locating deep tectonic tremors and apply it to construct a tremor catalog for western Japan. We redefine the envelope cross-correlation method as a maximum...

    Authors: Naoto Mizuno and Satoshi Ide

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:40

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  8. Content type: Express Letter

    During the past two decades, studies of the Aso volcano in Japan have improved our understanding of the shallow hydrothermal system that exists beneath the active crater of this volcano. Detailed knowledge of ...

    Authors: Wataru Kanda, Mitsuru Utsugi, Shinichi Takakura and Hiroyuki Inoue

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:37

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  9. Content type: Full paper

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) cause disturbances in the environment of the Earth when they arrive at the Earth. However, the prediction of the arrival of CMEs still remains a challenge. We have developed an in...

    Authors: Kazumasa Iwai, Daikou Shiota, Munetoshi Tokumaru, Ken’ichi Fujiki, Mitsue Den and Yûki Kubo

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:39

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  10. Content type: Full paper

    The winonaites are primitive achondrites that are associated with IAB iron meteorites. They provide valuable insights into differentiation processes on asteroids in the early Solar System. However, there is st...

    Authors: Xiaojia Zeng, Yingli Shang, Shijie Li, Xiongyao Li, Shijie Wang and Yang Li

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:38

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  11. Content type: Full paper

    On 27 April 2016, White Island erupted in a multi-pulse, phreatic event that lasted for ~ 40 min. Six, variably sized pulses generated three ballistic ejections and at least one pyroclastic surge out of the in...

    Authors: Geoff Kilgour, Stephanie Gates, Ben Kennedy, Aaron Farquhar, Ame McSporran and Cameron Asher

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:36

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  12. Content type: Full paper

    This study examines the influence of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) diurnal eastward 3 (DE3) and stationary planetary wave 4 (SPW4) which are the major ...

    Authors: Yang-Yi Sun, Huixin Liu, Yasunobu Miyoshi, Loren C. Chang and Libo Liu

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:35

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:45

  13. Content type: Full paper

    On June 18, 2018, an MJMA6.1 inland crustal earthquake occurred on the northeast edge of the Osaka basin, Japan. This event impacted the region by the maximum PGA larger than 0.9 g, and it was followed by a serie...

    Authors: Miroslav Hallo, Ivo Opršal, Kimiyuki Asano and František Gallovič

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:34

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  14. Content type: Express Letter

    Owing to the strict restrictions on the use of air guns in marine seismic surveys due to concerns about their potential impact on the marine ecosystem, there have been several cases where seismic surveys were ...

    Authors: Tetsuro Tsuru, Kazuo Amakasu, Jin-Oh Park, Junichi Sakakibara and Mamoru Takanashi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:31

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  15. Content type: Full paper

    We have analyzed the temporal variation in coda Q in the northeastern part of an inland high strain rate zone, the Niigata–Kobe Tectonic Zone (NKTZ), in central Japan, to investigate the response of coda Q to the...

    Authors: Masanobu Dojo and Yoshihiro Hiramatsu

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:32

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  16. Content type: Full paper

    The Mw 6.9 earthquake off Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, of 22 November 2016 was followed by a tsunami that struck the Japanese coast from Hokkaido in northern Japan to Wakayama Prefecture in western Japan. We comp...

    Authors: Kenji Nakata, Yutaka Hayashi, Hiroaki Tsushima, Kenichi Fujita, Yasuhiro Yoshida and Akio Katsumata

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:30

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  17. Content type: Full paper

    Around the Ogasawara Islands, only a few seismic stations in the area can be used to determine the hypocenters of regional earthquakes; thus, hypocenter location precision tends to be low. To more precisely de...

    Authors: Kenji Nakata, Akio Kobayashi, Akio Katsumata, Fuyuki Hirose, Takahito Nishimiya, Kazuhiro Kimura, Hiroaki Tsushima, Kenji Maeda, Hisatoshi Baba, Noritaka Hanamura, Chisato Yamada and Masashi Kanezashi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:29

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  18. Content type: Full paper

    Earthquake ruptures cause mass redistribution, which is expected to induce transient gravity perturbations simultaneously at all distances from the source before the arrival of P-waves. A recent research paper...

    Authors: Masaya Kimura, Nobuki Kame, Shingo Watada, Makiko Ohtani, Akito Araya, Yuichi Imanishi, Masaki Ando and Takashi Kunugi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:27

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  19. Content type: Full paper

    We conducted a broadband magnetotelluric (MT) survey along a north–south transect across Unzen graben, Japan. The MT survey line is located ~ 2 km west of the most recent lava dome and consisted of 27 stations...

    Authors: Agnis Triahadini, Koki Aizawa, Yoshiko Teguri, Takao Koyama, Kaori Tsukamoto, Dan Muramatsu, Keita Chiba and Makoto Uyeshima

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:28

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  20. Content type: Full paper

    The St. Patrick’s Day phenomenon is a geomagnetic storm that deserves serious discussion because of its intensity and effectiveness. This study focuses on the St. Patrick’s Day storm on March 17, 2015, which i...

    Authors: Emre Eroglu

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:26

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  21. Content type: Full paper

    At approximately 09:36 UTC on 27 April 2016, a phreatic eruption occurred on Whakaari Island (White Island) producing an eruption sequence that contained multiple eruptive pulses determined to have occurred ov...

    Authors: Braden Walsh, Jonathan Procter, Ivan Lokmer, Johannes Thun, Tony Hurst, Bruce Christenson and Arthur Jolly

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:25

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  22. Content type: Full paper

    In order to statistically investigate the relationship between the low-latitude coronal holes (CHs), the solar wind speed, and the geomagnetic activity in solar cycles 23 (1996–2008) and 24 (2009–2016), we con...

    Authors: Yumi Nakagawa, Satoshi Nozawa and Atsuki Shinbori

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:24

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  23. Content type: Express Letter

    We present results from the analysis of observations of the Chang’e 3 lander using geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry. The applied processing strategy as well as the limiting factors to our approach is...

    Authors: Grzegorz Klopotek, Thomas Hobiger, Rüdiger Haas, Frédéric Jaron, Laura La Porta, Axel Nothnagel, Zhongkai Zhang, Songtao Han, Alexander Neidhardt and Christian Plötz

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:23

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  24. Content type: Full paper

    Polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) often show different layers. Artificial electron heating experiments are an important diagnostic tool to investigate the parameters in the PMSE regions. The response of P...

    Authors: Safi Ullah, Hailong Li, Abdur Rauf, Lin Meng, Bin Wang and Maoyan Wang

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:22

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  25. Content type: Full paper

    The Okinawa Trough, to the southwest of Kyusyu, Japan, is an active backarc basin of the Ryukyu (Nansei-Shoto) island arc–trench system caused by the Philippine Sea plate subduction. Unlike other backarc basin...

    Authors: Azusa Nishizawa, Kentaro Kaneda, Mitsuhiro Oikawa, Daishi Horiuchi, Yukari Fujioka and Chiaki Okada

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:21

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  26. Content type: Full paper

    All Galileo, GLONASS, QZSS, and BeiDou satellites are equipped with laser retroreflector arrays dedicated to satellite laser ranging (SLR). Using SLR data to new GNSS systems allows for estimating global geode...

    Authors: K. Sośnica, G. Bury, R. Zajdel, D. Strugarek, M. Drożdżewski and K. Kazmierski

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:20

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  27. Content type: Express Letter

    Substorm-associated electron injection, starting on Apr. 5, 2017, was observed by the ERG (Arase), GOES-15 and GOES-13 spacecraft. ERG successfully observed a clear and sufficient extent of manifestations of t...

    Authors: Tzu-Fang Chang, Chio-Zong Cheng, Sunny Wing-Yee Tam, Chih-Yu Chiang, Yoshizumi Miyoshi, Tomoaki Hori, Takefumi Mitani, Takeshi Takashima, Ayako Matsuoka, Mariko Teramoto and Iku Shinohara

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:18

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  28. Content type: Express Letter

    Geomagnetic field variations as recorded at geomagnetic observatories are important for global electromagnetic studies. However, this data set is rarely used for studying the local electrical conductivity at d...

    Authors: Achim Morschhauser, Alexander Grayver, Alexey Kuvshinov, Friedemann Samrock and Jürgen Matzka

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:17

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  29. Content type: Full paper

    The detection and study of the rotational motion of space debris, which is affected by environmental factors, is a popular topic. However, relevant research in extremely low-orbit regions cannot be conducted d...

    Authors: Hou-Yuan Lin, Ting-Lei Zhu, Zhi-Peng Liang, Chang-Yin Zhao, Dong Wei, Wei Zhang, Xing-Wei Han, Hai-Feng Zhang, Zhi-Bin Wei, Yu-Qiang Li, Jian-Ning Xiong, Jin-Wei Zhan, Chen Zhang, Yi-Ding Ping, Qing-Li Song, Hai-Tao Zhang…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:16

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  30. Content type: Express Letter

    The present contribution investigates the temporal changes in volcaniclastic sediment transport over the 2-year period after the 2014 eruption of Ontake Volcano in two small drainage basins where increased tur...

    Authors: Kyoko S. Kataoka, Takane Matsumoto, Takeshi Saito, Yoshitaka Nagahashi and Tsutomu Iyobe

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:15

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  31. Content type: Full paper

    Strombolian explosions are one of the most studied eruptive styles and are characterized by intermittent explosions. The mechanism of a Strombolian explosion is modeled as a large gas pocket (slug) migrating t...

    Authors: Kyoka Ishii, Akihiko Yokoo, Tsuneomi Kagiyama, Takahiro Ohkura, Shin Yoshikawa and Hiroyuki Inoue

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:13

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  32. Content type: Full paper

    Monochromatic infrasound waves are scarcely reported volcanic infrasound signals. These waves have the potential to provide constraints on the conduit geometry of a volcano. However, to further investigate the...

    Authors: Akihiko Yokoo, Kyoka Ishii, Takahiro Ohkura and Keehoon Kim

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:12

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  33. Content type: Express Letter

    Transient mesospheric echo in the VHF range was detected at an altitude of 65–70 km during the auroral breakup that occurred from 2220 to 2226 UT on June 30, 2017. During this event, the footprint of the Arase...

    Authors: Ryuho Kataoka, Takanori Nishiyama, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Akira Kadokura, Herbert Akihito Uchida, Yusuke Ebihara, Mitsumu K. Ejiri, Yoshihiro Tomikawa, Masaki Tsutsumi, Kaoru Sato, Yoshizumi Miyoshi, Kazuo Shiokawa, Satoshi Kurita, Yoshiya Kasahara, Mitsunori Ozaki, Keisuke Hosokawa…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:9

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  34. Content type: Express Letter

    The impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Northern Hemisphere mid-winter zonal wind, temperature, and stationary planetary waves (SPWs) is evaluated using the Middle and Upper Atmosphere Mod...

    Authors: Tatiana S. Ermakova, Olga G. Aniskina, Irina A. Statnaia, Maxim A. Motsakov and Alexander I. Pogoreltsev

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:8

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  35. Content type: Express Letter

    At many volcano observatories, measurements of the plume height are frequently applied. On the other hand, the recent development of the satellite measurements enables the monitoring of the SO2 mass emitted by th...

    Authors: Masaaki Morita

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:7

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  36. Content type: Frontier letter

    Results from the first VHF profiler research radar in Costa Rica, operating at a central radar frequency of 46.6 MHz, are presented. Emphasis has been on studies of scattering layers detected in the altitude r...

    Authors: Marcial Garbanzo-Salas and Wayne Hocking

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:6

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  37. Content type: Full paper

    Pure magnetite experiences a first-order phase transition (the Verwey transition) near 120–125 K wherein the mineral’s symmetry changes from cubic to monoclinic. This transformation results in the formation of...

    Authors: Anna K. Lindquist, Joshua M. Feinberg, Richard J. Harrison, James C. Loudon and Andrew J. Newell

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:5

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  38. Content type: Full paper

    The vertical fine structures and the time evolution of plasma irregularities in the sporadic E (Es) layer were observed via calcium ion (Ca+) density measurements using a resonance scattering lidar with a high ti...

    Authors: Mitsumu K. Ejiri, Takuji Nakamura, Takuo T. Tsuda, Takanori Nishiyama, Makoto Abo, Toru Takahashi, Katsuhiko Tsuno, Takuya D. Kawahara, Takayo Ogawa and Satoshi Wada

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:3

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  39. Content type: Full paper

    We aim to obtain a modal decomposition of the internal geomagnetic field. In order to do so, we perform a principal component analysis of two virtual observatory datasets, with 4-month sampling time, from the ...

    Authors: João Domingos, Maria Alexandra Pais, Dominique Jault and Mioara Mandea

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:2

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  40. Content type: Full paper

    Continuous measurements of soil CO2 flux are useful for understanding degassing processes and for monitoring volcanic activities. Recent studies at many volcanoes have revealed that soil CO2 flux variations are s...

    Authors: Masaaki Morita, Toshiya Mori, Akihiko Yokoo, Takahiro Ohkura and Yuichi Morita

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2019 71:1

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  41. Content type: Express Letter

    Rootless eruption is caused by lava flow entering inland water or wet sediment and forms craters and cones far from the actual vent. Since the rootless eruption can be significantly explosive, the possibility ...

    Authors: Rina Noguchi, Ai Hamada, Ayako I. Suzuki and Kei Kurita

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2018 70:208

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