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  1. Speleothems are ideal archives of environmental magnetism and paleomagnetism, since they retain continuous magnetic signals in stable conditions and can be used for reliable radiometric dating using U-series a...

    Authors: Naoto Fukuyo, Hirokuni Oda, Yusuke Yokoyama, Geoffrey Clark and Yuhji Yamamoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:77

    Content type: Express Letter

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  2. Late Quaternary tectonic deformation of coastal areas is usually examined based on the height distribution of paleo-shorelines observed on marine terraces. However, it is difficult to examine deformation along...

    Authors: Hideaki Goto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:75

    Content type: Express Letter

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  3. Tsunami hazard in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin (EMB) has attracted attention following three tsunamis in this basin since 2017 namely the July 2017 and October 2020 Turkey/Greece and the May 2020 offshore C...

    Authors: Mohammad Heidarzadeh and Aditya Riadi Gusman

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:74

    Content type: Full paper

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  4. We use 20 years of continuous magnetic field measurements from the Ørsted, CHAMP and Swarm satellite missions, supplemented by calibrated platform magnetometer data from the CryoSat-2 satellite, to study time var...

    Authors: Magnus D. Hammer, Christopher C. Finlay and Nils Olsen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:73

    Content type: Full paper

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  5. A tsunami earthquake is an earthquake event that generates abnormally high tsunami waves considering the amplitude of the seismic waves. These abnormally high waves relative to the seismic wave amplitude are r...

    Authors: Akio Katsumata, Masayuki Tanaka and Takahito Nishimiya

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:72

    Content type: Full paper

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  6. In geodesy, a key application of data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), GRACE Follow-On (GRACE-FO), and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is an interpretation of changes in polar motion exc...

    Authors: Justyna Śliwińska, Jolanta Nastula and Małgorzata Wińska

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:71

    Content type: Full paper

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  7. We study the effects of combination on the observation level (COL) of different space-geodetic techniques and of networks of the same technique and present the corresponding improvement for the determination o...

    Authors: Periklis-Konstantinos Diamantidis, Grzegorz Kłopotek and Rüdiger Haas

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:68

    Content type: Full paper

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  8. This study presents results of mapping three-dimensional (3-D) variations of the electrical conductivity in depths ranging from 400 to 1200 km using 6 years of magnetic data from the Swarm and CryoSat-2 satellite...

    Authors: Alexey Kuvshinov, Alexander Grayver, Lars Tøffner-Clausen and Nils Olsen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:67

    Content type: Full paper

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:94

  9. The parameterization of the magnetospheric field contribution, generated by currents flowing in the magnetosphere is of major importance for the analysis of Mercury’s internal magnetic field. Using a combinati...

    Authors: S. Toepfer, Y. Narita, K. -H. Glassmeier, D. Heyner, P. Kolhey, U. Motschmann and B. Langlais

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:65

    Content type: Full paper

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  10. We developed an operational solar flare prediction model using deep neural networks, named Deep Flare Net (DeFN). DeFN can issue probabilistic forecasts of solar flares in two categories, such as ≥ M-class and...

    Authors: Naoto Nishizuka, Yûki Kubo, Komei Sugiura, Mitsue Den and Mamoru Ishii

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:64

    Content type: Full paper

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  11. Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) is a new method that measures the strain change along a fiber-optic cable and has emerged as a promising geophysical application across a wide range of research and monitorin...

    Authors: Satoshi Ide, Eiichiro Araki and Hiroyuki Matsumoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:63

    Content type: Express Letter

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  12. This paper describes and discusses the preprocessing and calibration of the magnetic data taken by the navigational magnetometers onboard the two GRACE satellites, with focus on the almost 10 years period from...

    Authors: Nils Olsen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:62

    Content type: Full paper

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  13. In the present work, we evaluate the accuracy of the Solar Quiet Reference Field (SQRF) model for estimating and predicting the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily field variation in the South America Magnetic ...

    Authors: Sony Su Chen, Clezio Marcos Denardini, Láysa Cristina Araujo Resende, Ronan Arraes Jardim Chagas, Juliano Moro, Régia Pereira da Silva, Carolina de Sousa do Carmo and Giorgio Arlan da Silva Picanço

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:61

    Content type: Full paper

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  14. Propagation of medium-scale gravity waves (GWs) in the thermosphere/ionosphere is observed remotely, using multi-frequency and multi-point continuous Doppler sounding system located in the western part of Czec...

    Authors: Jaroslav Chum, Kateřina Podolská, Jan Rusz, Jiří Baše and Nikolai Tedoradze

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:60

    Content type: Full paper

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  15. Slip phenomena on plate interfaces reflect the heterogeneous physical properties of the slip plane and, thus, exhibit a wide variety of slip velocities and rupture propagation behaviors. Recent findings on slo...

    Authors: Keita Nakamoto, Yoshihiro Hiramatsu, Takahiko Uchide and Kazutoshi Imanishi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:59

    Content type: Full paper

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:98

  16. It is widely recognised that filament disappearances or eruptions are frequently associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Since CMEs are a major source of disturbances of the space environment surroundin...

    Authors: Daikichi Seki, Kenichi Otsuji, Takako T. Ishii, Ayumi Asai and Kiyoshi Ichimoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:58

    Content type: Full paper

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  17. A solar energetic particle (SEP) event generates a shower of secondary generated particles in the Earth’s atmosphere down to lower altitudes to cause an atmospheric radiation storm (ARS). The high-energy secon...

    Authors: Susumu Saito, Navinda Kithmal Wickramasinghe, Tatsuhiko Sato and Daikou Shiota

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:57

    Content type: Full paper

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  18. We present geomagnetic main field and secular variation time series, at 300 equal-area distributed locations and at 490 km altitude, derived from magnetic field measurements collected by the three Swarm satellite...

    Authors: Magnus D. Hammer, Grace A. Cox, William J. Brown, Ciarán D. Beggan and Christopher C. Finlay

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:54

    Content type: Full paper

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  19. In the radargram obtained by the high-frequency lunar penetrating radar onboard the Chang’E-3 mission, we notice a potential subsurface cavity that has a smaller permittivity compared to the surrounding materi...

    Authors: Chunyu Ding, Zhiyong Xiao and Yan Su

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:53

    Content type: Full paper

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  20. Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) is one of the key parameters for users of radio-based systems, such as the Global Navigation Satellite System, high-frequency communication systems, and space-based rem...

    Authors: Michi Nishioka, Susumu Saito, Chihiro Tao, Daikou Shiota, Takuya Tsugawa and Mamoru Ishii

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:52

    Content type: Full paper

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  21. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission carries magnetometers that are dedicated to enhance the satellite’s navigation. After appropriate calibration and characterisation of ar...

    Authors: C. Stolle, I. Michaelis, C. Xiong, M. Rother, Th. Usbeck, Y. Yamazaki, J. Rauberg and K. Styp-Rekowski

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:51

    Content type: Full paper

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  22. In December 2019, the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group (V-MOD) adopted the thirteenth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). T...

    Authors: P. Alken, E. Thébault, C. D. Beggan, H. Amit, J. Aubert, J. Baerenzung, T. N. Bondar, W. J. Brown, S. Califf, A. Chambodut, A. Chulliat, G. A. Cox, C. C. Finlay, A. Fournier, N. Gillet, A. Grayver…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:49

    Content type: Full paper

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  23. In December 2019, the 13th revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was released by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group V-MOD. Thi...

    Authors: P. Alken, E. Thébault, C. D. Beggan, J. Aubert, J. Baerenzung, W. J. Brown, S. Califf, A. Chulliat, G. A. Cox, C. C. Finlay, A. Fournier, N. Gillet, M. D. Hammer, M. Holschneider, G. Hulot, M. Korte…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:48

    Content type: Technical report

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  24. We have produced a 5-year mean secular variation (SV) of the geomagnetic field for the period 2020–2025. We use the NASA Geomagnetic Ensemble Modeling System (GEMS), which consists of the NASA Goddard geodynam...

    Authors: Andrew Tangborn, Weijia Kuang, Terence J. Sabaka and Ce Yi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:47

    Content type: Full paper

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  25. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model is a combination of the several models developed by independent groups of scientists using different approaches for the selection of input data and me...

    Authors: Valeriy G. Petrov and Tatyana N. Bondar

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:46

    Content type: Express Letter

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  26. Using magnetic field data from the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) mission, we derive a global geomagnetic field model, which we call the CSES Global Geomagnetic Field Model (CGGM). This model de...

    Authors: Yanyan Yang, Gauthier Hulot, Pierre Vigneron, Xuhui Shen, Zeren Zhima, Bin Zhou, Werner Magnes, Nils Olsen, Lars Tøffner-Clausen, Jianpin Huang, Xuemin Zhang, Shigeng Yuan, Lanwei Wang, Bingjun Cheng, Andreas Pollinger, Roland Lammegger…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:45

    Content type: Full paper

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  27. This paper describes the design of a candidate secular variation model for the 13th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. This candidate is based upon the integration of an ensemble of 1...

    Authors: Alexandre Fournier, Julien Aubert, Vincent Lesur and Guillaume Ropp

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:43

    Content type: Full paper

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  28. The three candidate models submitted by the British Geological Survey for the 13th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field are described. These DGRF and IGRF models are derived from vector and sca...

    Authors: William J. Brown, Ciarán D. Beggan, Grace A. Cox and Susan Macmillan

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:42

    Content type: Full paper

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  29. Green’s functions (GFs) for elastic deformation due to unit slip on the fault plane comprise an essential tool for estimating earthquake rupture and underground preparation processes. These estimation results ...

    Authors: Takane Hori, Ryoichiro Agata, Tsuyoshi Ichimura, Kohei Fujita, Takuma Yamaguchi and Takeshi Iinuma

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:41

    Content type: Technical report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:84

  30. The Mw7.0 2016 Kumamoto earthquake occurred on the previously mapped Futagawa–Hinagu fault causing significant strong ground motions. A ~ 30-km-long dextral surface rupture appeared on the major fault zone and...

    Authors: Daisuke Ishimura, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi, Shinji Toda, Yo Fukushima, Yasuhiro Kumahara, Naoya Takahashi, Toshihiko Ichihara and Keita Takada

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:39

    Content type: Full paper

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  31. The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is a region at Earth’s surface where the intensity of the magnetic field is particularly low. Accurate characterization of the SAA is important for both fundamental understandi...

    Authors: Hagay Amit, Filipe Terra-Nova, Maxime Lézin and Ricardo I. Trindade

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:38

    Content type: Full paper

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  32. The effusion rate of lava is one of the most important eruption parameters, as it is closely related to the migration process of magma underground and on the surface, such as changes in lava flow direction or ...

    Authors: Takayuki Kaneko, Atsushi Yasuda and Toshitsugu Fujii

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:37

    Content type: Express Letter

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  33. The Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench (S-net) is presently the world’s largest network of ocean bottom pressure sensors for real-time tsunami monitoring. This pap...

    Authors: Iyan E. Mulia and Kenji Satake

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:36

    Content type: Full paper

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:69

  34. The total electron content (TEC) data derived from the GAIA (Ground-to-topside model of Atmosphere Ionosphere for Aeronomy) is used to study the seasonal and longitudinal variation of occurrence of medium-scal...

    Authors: Mani Sivakandan, Yuichi Otsuka, Priyanka Ghosh, Hiroyuki Shinagawa, Atsuki Shinbori and Yasunobu Miyoshi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:35

    Content type: Full paper

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  35. The magnetotelluric method is increasingly being used to monitor electrical resistivity changes in the subsurface. One of the preferred parameters derived from the surface impedance is the strike direction, wh...

    Authors: Ana G. Bravo-Osuna, Enrique Gómez-Treviño, Olaf J. Cortés-Arroyo, Nestor F. Delgadillo-Jauregui and Rocío F. Arellano-Castro

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:34

    Content type: Full paper

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  36. Distinct later phases of waves with rich high-frequency (> 8 Hz) components were observed for intraslab earthquakes that occurred at intermediate depths, particularly at depths exceeding 100 km, in the northea...

    Authors: Takahiro Shiina, Kei Katsumata, Kiyoshi Yomogida and Aitaro Kato

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:33

    Content type: Full paper

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  37. In gradual Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events, shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) play a major role in accelerating particles, and the energetic particle flux enhances substantially when th...

    Authors: Mitsuo Oka, Takahiro Obara, Nariaki V. Nitta, Seiji Yashiro, Daikou Shiota and Kiyoshi Ichimoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:31

    Content type: Express Letter

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  38. Although seismic amplitudes can be used to estimate event locations for volcanic tremors and other seismic events with unclear phase arrival times, the precision of such estimates is strongly affected by site ...

    Authors: Masashi Ogiso and Kiyoshi Yomogida

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:29

    Content type: Full paper

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  39. A sporadic E layer has significant influence on radio communications and broadcasting, and predicting the occurrence of sporadic E layers is one of the most important issues in space weather forecast. While sp...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Shinagawa, Chihiro Tao, Hidekatsu Jin, Yasunobu Miyoshi and Hitoshi Fujiwara

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:28

    Content type: Full paper

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  40. In order to characterize the spatial–temporal properties of postseismic slip motions associated with the 2015 Illapel earthquake, the daily position time series of 13 GNSS sites situated at the near-field regi...

    Authors: Yunfei Xiang, Jianping Yue, Zhongshan Jiang and Yin Xing

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:27

    Content type: Full paper

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