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  1. We present geomagnetic main field and secular variation time series, at 300 equal-area distributed locations and at 490 km altitude, derived from magnetic field measurements collected by the three Swarm satellite...

    Authors: Magnus D. Hammer, Grace A. Cox, William J. Brown, Ciarán D. Beggan and Christopher C. Finlay

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:54

    Content type: Full paper

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  2. In the radargram obtained by the high-frequency lunar penetrating radar onboard the Chang’E-3 mission, we notice a potential subsurface cavity that has a smaller permittivity compared to the surrounding materi...

    Authors: Chunyu Ding, Zhiyong Xiao and Yan Su

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:53

    Content type: Full paper

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  3. Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) is one of the key parameters for users of radio-based systems, such as the Global Navigation Satellite System, high-frequency communication systems, and space-based rem...

    Authors: Michi Nishioka, Susumu Saito, Chihiro Tao, Daikou Shiota, Takuya Tsugawa and Mamoru Ishii

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:52

    Content type: Full paper

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  4. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission carries magnetometers that are dedicated to enhance the satellite’s navigation. After appropriate calibration and characterisation of ar...

    Authors: C. Stolle, I. Michaelis, C. Xiong, M. Rother, Th. Usbeck, Y. Yamazaki, J. Rauberg and K. Styp-Rekowski

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:51

    Content type: Full paper

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  5. In December 2019, the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group (V-MOD) adopted the thirteenth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). T...

    Authors: P. Alken, E. Thébault, C. D. Beggan, H. Amit, J. Aubert, J. Baerenzung, T. N. Bondar, W. J. Brown, S. Califf, A. Chambodut, A. Chulliat, G. A. Cox, C. C. Finlay, A. Fournier, N. Gillet, A. Grayver…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:49

    Content type: Full paper

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  6. In December 2019, the 13th revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was released by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group V-MOD. Thi...

    Authors: P. Alken, E. Thébault, C. D. Beggan, J. Aubert, J. Baerenzung, W. J. Brown, S. Califf, A. Chulliat, G. A. Cox, C. C. Finlay, A. Fournier, N. Gillet, M. D. Hammer, M. Holschneider, G. Hulot, M. Korte…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:48

    Content type: Technical report

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  7. We have produced a 5-year mean secular variation (SV) of the geomagnetic field for the period 2020–2025. We use the NASA Geomagnetic Ensemble Modeling System (GEMS), which consists of the NASA Goddard geodynam...

    Authors: Andrew Tangborn, Weijia Kuang, Terence J. Sabaka and Ce Yi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:47

    Content type: Full paper

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  8. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model is a combination of the several models developed by independent groups of scientists using different approaches for the selection of input data and me...

    Authors: Valeriy G. Petrov and Tatyana N. Bondar

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:46

    Content type: Express Letter

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  9. Using magnetic field data from the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) mission, we derive a global geomagnetic field model, which we call the CSES Global Geomagnetic Field Model (CGGM). This model de...

    Authors: Yanyan Yang, Gauthier Hulot, Pierre Vigneron, Xuhui Shen, Zeren Zhima, Bin Zhou, Werner Magnes, Nils Olsen, Lars Tøffner-Clausen, Jianpin Huang, Xuemin Zhang, Shigeng Yuan, Lanwei Wang, Bingjun Cheng, Andreas Pollinger, Roland Lammegger…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:45

    Content type: Full paper

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  10. This paper describes the design of a candidate secular variation model for the 13th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. This candidate is based upon the integration of an ensemble of 1...

    Authors: Alexandre Fournier, Julien Aubert, Vincent Lesur and Guillaume Ropp

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:43

    Content type: Full paper

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  11. The three candidate models submitted by the British Geological Survey for the 13th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field are described. These DGRF and IGRF models are derived from vector and sca...

    Authors: William J. Brown, Ciarán D. Beggan, Grace A. Cox and Susan Macmillan

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:42

    Content type: Full paper

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  12. Green’s functions (GFs) for elastic deformation due to unit slip on the fault plane comprise an essential tool for estimating earthquake rupture and underground preparation processes. These estimation results ...

    Authors: Takane Hori, Ryoichiro Agata, Tsuyoshi Ichimura, Kohei Fujita, Takuma Yamaguchi and Takeshi Iinuma

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:41

    Content type: Technical report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:84

  13. The Mw7.0 2016 Kumamoto earthquake occurred on the previously mapped Futagawa–Hinagu fault causing significant strong ground motions. A ~ 30-km-long dextral surface rupture appeared on the major fault zone and...

    Authors: Daisuke Ishimura, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi, Shinji Toda, Yo Fukushima, Yasuhiro Kumahara, Naoya Takahashi, Toshihiko Ichihara and Keita Takada

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:39

    Content type: Full paper

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  14. The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is a region at Earth’s surface where the intensity of the magnetic field is particularly low. Accurate characterization of the SAA is important for both fundamental understandi...

    Authors: Hagay Amit, Filipe Terra-Nova, Maxime Lézin and Ricardo I. Trindade

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:38

    Content type: Full paper

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  15. The effusion rate of lava is one of the most important eruption parameters, as it is closely related to the migration process of magma underground and on the surface, such as changes in lava flow direction or ...

    Authors: Takayuki Kaneko, Atsushi Yasuda and Toshitsugu Fujii

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:37

    Content type: Express Letter

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  16. The Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench (S-net) is presently the world’s largest network of ocean bottom pressure sensors for real-time tsunami monitoring. This pap...

    Authors: Iyan E. Mulia and Kenji Satake

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:36

    Content type: Full paper

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:69

  17. The total electron content (TEC) data derived from the GAIA (Ground-to-topside model of Atmosphere Ionosphere for Aeronomy) is used to study the seasonal and longitudinal variation of occurrence of medium-scal...

    Authors: Mani Sivakandan, Yuichi Otsuka, Priyanka Ghosh, Hiroyuki Shinagawa, Atsuki Shinbori and Yasunobu Miyoshi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:35

    Content type: Full paper

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  18. The magnetotelluric method is increasingly being used to monitor electrical resistivity changes in the subsurface. One of the preferred parameters derived from the surface impedance is the strike direction, wh...

    Authors: Ana G. Bravo-Osuna, Enrique Gómez-Treviño, Olaf J. Cortés-Arroyo, Nestor F. Delgadillo-Jauregui and Rocío F. Arellano-Castro

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:34

    Content type: Full paper

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  19. Distinct later phases of waves with rich high-frequency (> 8 Hz) components were observed for intraslab earthquakes that occurred at intermediate depths, particularly at depths exceeding 100 km, in the northea...

    Authors: Takahiro Shiina, Kei Katsumata, Kiyoshi Yomogida and Aitaro Kato

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:33

    Content type: Full paper

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  20. In gradual Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events, shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) play a major role in accelerating particles, and the energetic particle flux enhances substantially when th...

    Authors: Mitsuo Oka, Takahiro Obara, Nariaki V. Nitta, Seiji Yashiro, Daikou Shiota and Kiyoshi Ichimoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:31

    Content type: Express Letter

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  21. Although seismic amplitudes can be used to estimate event locations for volcanic tremors and other seismic events with unclear phase arrival times, the precision of such estimates is strongly affected by site ...

    Authors: Masashi Ogiso and Kiyoshi Yomogida

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:29

    Content type: Full paper

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  22. A sporadic E layer has significant influence on radio communications and broadcasting, and predicting the occurrence of sporadic E layers is one of the most important issues in space weather forecast. While sp...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Shinagawa, Chihiro Tao, Hidekatsu Jin, Yasunobu Miyoshi and Hitoshi Fujiwara

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:28

    Content type: Full paper

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  23. In order to characterize the spatial–temporal properties of postseismic slip motions associated with the 2015 Illapel earthquake, the daily position time series of 13 GNSS sites situated at the near-field regi...

    Authors: Yunfei Xiang, Jianping Yue, Zhongshan Jiang and Yin Xing

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:27

    Content type: Full paper

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  24. Plasma variations in the geospace environment driven by solar wind–magnetosphere interactions are one of the major causes of satellite anomaly. To mitigate the effect of satellite anomaly, the risk of space we...

    Authors: Tsutomu Nagatsuma, Aoi Nakamizo, Yasubumi Kubota, Masao Nakamura, Kiyokazu Koga, Yoshizumi Miyoshi and Haruhisa Matsumoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:26

    Content type: Full paper

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  25. Laboratory experiments with seismic measurements have the potential to be highly useful for understanding the physical process of water-induced landslides, and fundamental experiments are helpful for the appro...

    Authors: Masayuki Nakayama, Hironori Kawakata, Shiro Hirano and Issei Doi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:25

    Content type: Technical report

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  26. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Kodai Nakagomi, Toshiko Terakawa, Satoshi Matsumoto and Shinichiro Horikawa

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:24

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:11

  27. Models of the geomagnetic field rely on magnetic data of high spatial and temporal resolution to give an accurate picture of the Earth’s internal magnetic field and its time-dependence. The magnetic data from ...

    Authors: Clemens Kloss, Christopher C. Finlay and Nils Olsen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:23

    Content type: Full paper

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  28. In order to reveal solar activity dependence of the medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) at midlatitudes, total electron content (TEC) data obtained from a Global Positioning System (GPS) r...

    Authors: Yuichi Otsuka, Atsuki Shinbori, Takuya Tsugawa and Michi Nishioka

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:22

    Content type: Full paper

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  29. In this study, we determined the alignment of the laser altimeter aboard Hayabusa2 with respect to the spacecraft using in-flight data. Since the laser altimeter data were used to estimate the trajectory of th...

    Authors: Hirotomo Noda, Hiroki Senshu, Koji Matsumoto, Noriyuki Namiki, Takahide Mizuno, Seiji Sugita, Shinsuke Abe, Hiroshi Araki, Kazuyoshi Asari, Yuichiro Cho, Atsushi Fujii, Masahiko Hayakawa, Arika Higuchi, Naoyuki Hirata, Naru Hirata, Chikatoshi Honda…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:21

    Content type: Full paper

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  30. Taking into account the motional induction effect, in which the Earth crust that has finite electrical conductivity vibrates in the ambient geomagnetic field resulting in motionally induced electric current, w...

    Authors: Yao-Chong Sun, Hengxin Ren, Ken’ichi Yamazaki, Ling Zeng, Qinghua Huang and Xiaofei Chen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:20

    Content type: Full paper

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  31. The east coast of the Tohoku district, Japan has a high seismicity, including aftershocks of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake. We analyzed 1142 earthquakes with http://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2Fs40623-020-01326-8/40623_2020_1326_Article_IEq1.gif

    Authors: Takuji Yamada, Meitong Duan and Jun Kawahara

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:18

    Content type: Full paper

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  32. We propose a new waveform inversion method to estimate the 2D S-wave velocity structure of deep sedimentary layers using broadband Love waves. As a preprocessing operation in our inversion scheme, we decompose...

    Authors: Kentaro Kasamatsu, Hiroaki Yamanaka and Shin’ichi Sakai

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:17

    Content type: Full paper

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  33. Early evolution of Solar System small bodies proceeded through interactions of mineral and water. Melting of water ice accreted with mineral particles to the parent body results in the formation of secondary m...

    Authors: Naoki Hirakawa, Yoko Kebukawa, Yoshihiro Furukawa, Masashi Kondo, Hideyuki Nakano and Kensei Kobayashi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:16

    Content type: Express Letter

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  34. We conducted centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversions of moderate (Mw 4.5–6.5) earthquakes in the Kanto region, Japan, using a local three-dimensional (3D) model. We then investigated the effects of our 3D CMT sol...

    Authors: Shunsuke Takemura, Kazuo Yoshimoto and Katsuhiko Shiomi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:15

    Content type: Full paper

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  35. Kusatsu-Shirane volcano hosts numerous thermal springs, fumaroles, and the crater lake of Yugama. Hence, it has been a particular study field for hydrothermal systems and phreatic eruptions. On 23 January 2018...

    Authors: Taishi Yamada, Aika K. Kurokawa, Akihiko Terada, Wataru Kanda, Hideki Ueda, Hiroshi Aoyama, Takahiro Ohkura, Yasuo Ogawa and Toshikazu Tanada

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:14

    Content type: Full paper

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  36. We statistically investigate the spectral scalings of magnetic fluctuations at the upstream and downstream regions near the Venusian bow shock and perform a differentiation by shock geometry. Based on the Venu...

    Authors: S. D. Xiao, M. Y. Wu, G. Q. Wang, Y. Q. Chen and T. L. Zhang

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:13

    Content type: Express Letter

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  37. Crustal earthquake ruptures tend to initiate near fluid-rich zones. However, it is relatively unknown whether fluid-rich zones can further promote or arrest these ruptures. We image the electrical resistivity ...

    Authors: Koki Aizawa, Shinichi Takakura, Hisafumi Asaue, Katsuaki Koike, Ryokei Yoshimura, Ken’ichi Yamazaki, Shintaro Komatsu, Mitsuru Utsugi, Hiroyuki Inoue, Kaori Tsukamoto, Makoto Uyeshima, Takao Koyama, Wataru Kanda, Tohru Yoshinaga, Nobuo Matsushima, Kazunari Uchida…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:12

    Content type: Express Letter

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  38. We quantitatively examined the influence of pore fluid pressure and coseismic stress changes on the seismicity rate changes that followed the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, on the basis of two approaches. One is a ...

    Authors: Kodai Nakagomi, Toshiko Terakawa, Satoshi Matsumoto and Shinichiro Horikawa

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:11

    Content type: Full paper

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:24

  39. Using the HF Doppler sounders at middle and low latitudes (Prague, Czech Republic; Tucuman, Argentina; Zhongli, Republic of China, and Sugadaira, Japan), we observed the electric fields of the geomagnetic sudd...

    Authors: Takashi Kikuchi, Jaroslav Chum, Ichiro Tomizawa, Kumiko K. Hashimoto, Keisuke Hosokawa, Yusuke Ebihara, Kornyanat Hozumi and Pornchai Supnithi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:10

    Content type: Full paper

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  40. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) cause various disturbances of the space environment; therefore, forecasting their arrival time is very important. However, forecasting accuracy is hindered by limited CME observat...

    Authors: Kazumasa Iwai, Daikou Shiota, Munetoshi Tokumaru, Ken’ichi Fujiki, Mitsue Den and Yûki Kubo

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:9

    Content type: Express Letter

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  41. The Iwo-yama volcano of the Kirishima Volcanic Complex in Japan had a small phreatic eruption in April 2018, which newly formed multiple vents. The activity was recorded by two infrasound sensors and two monit...

    Authors: Dan Muramatsu, Takeshi Matsushima and Mie Ichihara

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:8

    Content type: Express Letter

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  42. We have performed a statistical data analysis on relationship between simultaneous Na density data and cosmic noise absorption (CNA) data, which is an indicator for energetic particle precipitation, obtained a...

    Authors: T. T. Tsuda, Y. -M. Tanaka, R. Tozu, K. Takizawa, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. D. Kawahara and T. Nakamura

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:7

    Content type: Full paper

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  43. To analyze the process of subduction of the Nazca and South American plates in the area of the Southern Andes, and its relationship with the tectonic and volcanic regime of the place, magnetotelluric measureme...

    Authors: Maria Jose Segovia, Daniel Diaz, Katarzyna Slezak and Felipe Zuñiga

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:5

    Content type: Full paper

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